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Previous studies performed in our laboratory have measured the effect of atrazine exposure on cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activity and have found increased activity in midge larvae (Chironomus tentans) as a result of atrazine exposure (1– 10 ppm). Here we report the cloning and expression of a specific C. tentans CYP4 gene that is responsive to atrazine induction with an open reading frame of 1678 bp which encodes a putative protein of 559 amino acid residues. Alignments of deduced amino acid sequences with other insect P450 genes and phylogenetic analysis indicated a high degree of similarity to other insect CYP4 genes. Northern blotting analysis employing a fragment of 1200 bp from the CYP4 gene as a probe indicated that the CYP4 gene was expressed in all developmental stages, but was expressed at highest levels in late instar larvae. Additionally, over-expression of CYP4 in C. tentans exposed to atrazine (10 mg/l) confirms the ability of atrazine to induce specific P450 genes and provides insight into potential consequences of atrazine exposure in aquatic organisms.