U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Date of this Version



Published in ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING, SOFTWARE AND DECISION SUPPORT: STATE OF THE ART AND NEW PERSPECTIVES, edited by A. J. Jakeman, A. A. Voinov, A. E. Rizzoli, & S. H. Chen (Amsterdam et al.: Elsevier, 2008).


Sound decisions in environmental policy and management usually require the examination of alternative solutions, and may require the consideration of alternative problem fornlulations prior to option assessment. Constructing and considering the consequences of alternative problems (variables and relations) and policy options (norms and standards) is fundamental for processes of policy fornlulation (Vickers, 1965).