US Fish & Wildlife Service


Date of this Version



United States Fish & Wildlife Service, Region 6 Denver, Colorado.


U. S. government work.


All native migratory birds in the United States and Canada are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) of 1918 (16 U.S.C. §§ 703 – 712). Three additional countries have signed this act, including Mexico (1936), Japan, and Russia (1976). Although these avian species are protected, permits for direct take can be issued for activities such as depredation, salvage and scientific collection (USFWS 2012a). However the USFWS currently lacks the ability to assess the potential consequences of these increases on the vast majority of birds protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Consequently, there is an urgent need to summarize the current population status, data limitations, and the potential impacts of increased direct take on relevant populations and subpopulations.