US Fish & Wildlife Service


Date of this Version



Final: December 11, 2003.


U. S. government work.


LBCUs are a species of special concern throughout much of their breeding range in North America, with both the U.S. and Canadian Shorebird Plans listing them as “Highly Imperiled” (Brown et al. 2001). LBCUs are also listed in the U.S. as a Bird of Conservation Concern, at the National level, within FWS Regions 1, 2, 4 and 6, and for many Bird Conservation Regions (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2002). This level of concern is due to apparent population declines, particularly in the shortgrass and mixed-grass prairie of the western Great Plains (Brown et al. 2001). Threats include habitat loss and fragmentation due to agricultural conversion (cropland and tame pasture), encroachment of woody vegetation, and urban development. For details on LBCU ecology, management, and conservation, refer to Dugger and Dugger (2002).