US Fish & Wildlife Service


Date of this Version



U.S. Government Work


Waterbirds 42(1): 78-89, 2019


Year-round behavioral observations and surveys were used to investigate the temporal dynamics of life history events and associated variation in behavioral activities of the endangered, island-endemic Hawaiian Duck (Anas wyvilliana) on Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i, USA. Although breeding activity occurred throughout the year, backdated brood observations (n = 67) revealed that birds initiated 94% of nests during the 9-month period from September through May, their peak nesting season. A greater proportion of females (n = 149) were paired during the peak nesting season (75%) than the off-peak season (48%). Behavioral patterns (n = 984; 329 hr) differed between seasons for males but not for females. Males allocated more time to vigilance and less time to foraging during the peak nesting season than the off-peak season. Activity budgets also differed between sexes, but only during the peak nesting season. During this period, females spent more time foraging than males, whereas males allocated more time to vigilance, locomotion, and social activities. Current management objectives for the Hawaiian Duck aim to provide resources for multiple life history stages concurrently throughout the year, and although this approach is largely appropriate, our results suggest refinements in the timing of certain activities (e.g., managing nesting habitat to be available during September-May).