US Geological Survey


Date of this Version



Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:85-87, 1988.


U.S. government work.


Distribution of the wolf (Canis lupus) in parts of Wisconsin (Thiel 1985) and Michigan and Ontario (Jensen et al. 1986) has been related to the density of roads passable by 2-wheel-drive vehicles. Wolves in those regions generally do not occur where road densities exceed 0.58 km/km2, whereas similar areas nearby with fewer roads do contain wolves.

In a small segment of the wolf range in Minnesota, wolves did not have territories where roads exceeded a density of 0.73 km/km2 (T. K. Fuller, Minn. Dep. Nat. Resour., unpubl. data). In another small area of Minnesota with 0.73 km of roads/ km2, >50% of known wolf mortality was caused by humans despite prohibitions of the Endangered Species Act, but wolves survived there probably because the area was surrounded by an extensive wilderness reservoir (L. D. Mech, un-publ. data).