US Geological Survey


Date of this Version



WILDLIFE MONOGRAPHS (ISSN: 0084-0173), A Publication of The Wildlife Society, OCTOBER 1981, No. 80.


U.S. government work.


The gray wolf Canis lupus occupies only about 1 percent of its former range in the lower 48 states (Mech 1974a). Most of the range is in northern Minnesota, where the resident population is classified as "threatened" by the U.S. Department of the Interior. Wolves have been and will continue to be the subject of considerable controversy in Minnesota.

The first scientific study of wolves in Minnesota was conducted by Olson (1938a,b). That and all subsequent re- search was in the Superior National Forest (SNF) of northeastern Minnesota even though wolves inhabit approximately the northern third of the state. Consequently, until the present study, little was known about wolves in northwestern Minnesota, although it is highly desirable to have such information if wolves throughout Minnesota are to be managed wisely.