US Geological Survey
Uptake, Metabolism, and Elimination of Fungicides from Coated Wheat Seeds in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)
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Pesticides coated to the seed surface potentially pose an ecological risk to granivorous birds that consume incompletely buried or spilled seeds. To assess the toxicokinetics of seeds treated with current-use fungicides, Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica) were orally dosed with commercially coated wheat seeds. Quail were exposed to metalaxyl, tebuconazole, and fludioxonil at either a low dose (0.0655, 0.0308, and 0.0328 mg/kg of body weight, respectively) or a high dose (0.196, 0.0925, and 0.0985 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). Fungicides were rapidly absorbed and distributed to tissues. Tebuconazole was metabolized into tert-butylhydroxy-tebuconazole. All compounds were eliminated to below detection limits within 24 h. The high detection frequencies observed in fecal samples potentially offer a non-invasive matrix to monitor pesticide exposure. With the summation of total body burden across plasma, tissue, and fecal samples, less than 9% of the administered dose was identified as the parent fungicide, demonstrating the importance to monitor both active ingredients and their metabolites in biological samples.
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https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b05668 J. Agric. Food Chem. 2020, 68, 1514−1524