US Geological Survey


Date of this Version



Published in Hydraulic Engineering: Saving a Threatened Resource—In Search of Solutions: Proceedings of the Hydraulic Engineering sessions at Water Forum ’92. Baltimore, Maryland, August 2–6, 1992. Published by American Society of Civil Engineers.


This paper describes the theoretical and observed effects of topography on stormflow acidity in upland, forested watersheds. The theoretical effects were determined by a sensitivity analysis using the hydrologic model TOPMODEL. The observed effects were determined by an analysis of topographic and stormflow acidity data collected from eight watersheds in Wales, Great Britain. Results of the analyses indicated that the observed effects of topography were consistent with the theoretical expectations; that is, topography has an important effect on flow path, and that flow path, in turn, has an effect on stormflow acidity.