US Geological Survey


Document Type


Date of this Version



The Journal of Geology, Vol. 56, No. 4, Jul., 1948


A variety of paleontologic and stratigraphic problems are presented by rocks near the Mississippian- Pennsylvanian boundary in the central and northern Rocky Mountains. Stratigraphic sections of these rocks show diverse interpretations of fundamental concepts of stratigraphy and paleontology. In many places where Upper Mississippian rocks directly underlie Pennsylvanian rocks it is difficult to determine the precise location of the boundary between these units. Formations that straddle the boundary are very useful and satisfactory over large areas. Most geologists use various types of lithologic criteria to distinguish formations, but some appear to rely mainly on faunal data, unconformities, or attempts to trace prominent beds. More uniformity in criteria than now exists for the delimitation of formations is desirable. Surface and sub-surface formations should conform to the same definition. Critical paleontologic studies of several common species and genera, if based on a large number of specimens, might help solve the boundary problem. More correlations based on several lines of paleontologic evidence and less reliance on a few index fossils would also help. Larger and more varied collections of well-preserved fossils stratigraphically located are needed from critical areas. Additional stratigraphic work in this region should be of a detailed nature and should prefer-ably be done in connection with detailed mapping. Ecologic and paleogeographic factors merit more atten-tion. The age significance of unconformities has perhaps been overestimated generally.