US Geological Survey


Date of this Version



J Archaeol Method Theory (2011) 18:1–60
DOI 10.1007/s10816-010-9082-z


U.S. government work.


Maize is the New World’s preeminent grain crop and it provided the economic basis for human culture in many regions within the Americas. To flourish, maize needs water, sunlight (heat), and nutrients (e.g., nitrogen). In this paper, climate and soil chemistry data are used to evaluate the potential for dryland (rain-on- field) agriculture in the semiarid southeastern Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande regions. Processes that impact maize agriculture such as nitrogen mineralization, infiltration of precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and transpiration are discussed and evaluated. Most of the study area, excepting high-elevation regions, receives sufficient solar radiation to grow maize. The salinities of subsurface soils in the central San Juan Basin are very high and their nitrogen concentrations are very low. In addition, soils of the central San Juan Basin are characterized by pH values that exceed 8.0, which limit the availability of both nitrogen and phosphorous. In general, the San Juan Basin, including Chaco Canyon, is the least promising part of the study area in terms of dryland farming. Calculations of field life, using values of organic nitrogen for the upper 50 cm of soil in the study area, indicate that most of the study area could not support a 10-bushel/acre crop of maize. The concepts, methods, and calculations used to quantify maize productivity in this study are applicable to maize cultivation in other environmental settings across the Americas.

Note (2): Six additional supplemental files are attached below.

Benson JAMT 2011 Factors SUPPL 1.tif (12982 kB)
High resolution image (TIFF 12982 kb)

Benson JAMT 2011 Factors SUPPL 2.tif (13129 kB)
High resolution image (TIFF 13129 kb)

Benson JAMT 2011 Factors SUPPL 3.xls (91 kB)
Supplementary Table 1: (XLS 91 kb)

Benson JAMT 2011 Factors SUPPL 4.xls (438 kB)
Supplementary Table 2: (XLS 438 kb)

Benson JAMT 2011 Factors SUPPL 5.gif (13 kB)
Supplementary Fig. 1: Weather station location map. (GIF 13 kb)

Benson JAMT 2011 Factors SUPPL 6.gif (14 kB)
Supplementary Fig. 2: Soil pedon location map. (GIF 14 kb)