U.S. Department of Defense


Date of this Version



Vaccine 32 (2014) 3341–3344


This article is a U.S. government work, and is not subject to copyright in the United States.


Background: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) test responsiveness is associated with HIV disease progression; however it is unknown whether other immune markers, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine seroresponse, also predict HIV outcomes. Methods: Eligible participants received HBV vaccine after HIV diagnosis, had non-anergic DTH testing at the time of last HBV vaccination, and available post-vaccine HBV antibody responses. The risk of progression to AIDS or death from the time of last HBV vaccination was evaluated. Results: Of 369 eligible participants with non-anergic DTH responses, 148 (40%) were HBV vaccine responders. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, CD4 count, viral load, and number of vaccinations, HBV vaccine non-responders had an increased risk of progression to AIDS or death (HR 1.81; 95% CI, 1.03–3.19). Conclusions: HBV vaccine seroresponses were independent of DTH responses which suggest that nonresponse to HBV vaccine is not solely due to cell-mediated immune dysfunction in HIV-infected persons.