Date of this Version
The Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 204, No. 7, July 9, 2007 1691-1702
It has been suggested that T cell immunoglobulin mucin (Tim)-1 expressed on T cells serves to positively costimulate T cell responses. However, crosslinking of Tim-1 by its ligand Tim-4 resulted in either activation or inhibition of T cell responses, thus raising the issue of whether Tim-1 can have a dual function as a costimulator. To resolve this issue, we tested a series of monoclonal antibodies specifi c for Tim-1 and identifi ed two antibodies that showed opposite functional effects. One anti–Tim-1 antibody increased the frequency of antigen-specifi c T cells, the production of the proinfl ammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17, and the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In contrast, another anti– Tim-1 antibody inhibited the generation of antigen-specifi c T cells, production of IFN-γ and IL-17, and development of autoimmunity, and it caused a strong Th2 response. Both antibodies bound to closely related epitopes in the IgV domain of the Tim-1 molecule, but the activating antibody had an avidity for Tim-1 that was 17 times higher than the inhibitory antibody. Although both anti–Tim-1 antibodies induced CD3 capping, only the activating antibody caused strong cytoskeletal reorganization and motility. These data indicate that Tim-1 regulates T cell responses and that Tim-1 engagement can alter T cell function depending on the affi nity/avidity with which it is engaged.
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