Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Department of


Date of this Version



Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 46


© 2019 by the authors.

Open access



Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and has been associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. An effective control of Map by either vaccines or chemoprophylaxis is a paramount need for veterinary and possibly human medicine. Given the importance of fatty acids in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids and the mycobacterial cell wall, we tested novel amphiphilic C10 and C18 cyclobutene and cyclobutane fatty acid derivatives for Map inhibition. Microdilution minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) with 5 or 7 week endpoints were measured in Middlebrook 7H9 base broth media. We compared the Map MIC results with those obtained previously with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Several of the C18 compounds showed moderate effcacy (MICs 392 to 824 μM) against Map, while a higher level of inhibition (MICs 6 to 82 μM) was observed for M. tuberculosis for select analogs from both the C10 and C18 groups. For most of these analogs tested in M. smegmatis, their effcacy decreased in the presence of bovine or human serum albumin. Compound 5 (OA-CB, 1-(octanoic acid-8-yl)-2-octylcyclobutene) was identified as the best chemical lead against Map, which suggests derivatives with better pharmacodynamics may be of interest for evaluation in animal models.