Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Department of


Date of this Version



Martin, C.K.; Samolej, J.; Olson, A.T.; Bertoli, C.;Wiebe, M.S.; de Bruin, R.A.M.; Mercer, J. Vaccinia Virus Arrests and Shifts the Cell Cycle. Viruses 2022, 14, 431.


© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).


Modulation of the host cell cycle is a common strategy used by viruses to create a proreplicative environment. To facilitate viral genome replication, vaccinia virus (VACV) has been reported to alter cell cycle regulation and trigger the host cell DNA damage response. However, the cellular factors and viral effectors that mediate these changes remain unknown. Here, we set out to investigate the effect of VACV infection on cell proliferation and host cell cycle progression. Using a subset of VACV mutants, we characterise the stage of infection required for inhibition of cell proliferation and define the viral effectors required to dysregulate the host cell cycle. Consistent with previous studies, we show that VACV inhibits and subsequently shifts the host cell cycle. We demonstrate that these two phenomena are independent of one another, with viral early genes being responsible for cell cycle inhibition, and post-replicative viral gene(s) responsible for the cell cycle shift. Extending previous findings, we show that the viral kinase F10 is required to activate the DNA damage checkpoint and that the viral B1 kinase and/or B12 pseudokinase mediate degradation of checkpoint effectors p53 and p21 during infection. We conclude that VACV modulates host cell proliferation and host cell cycle progression through temporal expression of multiple VACV effector proteins. (209/200.)