Date of this Version
Kyriakou, S.; Tragkola, V.; Paraskevaidis, I.; Plioukas, M.; Trafalis, D.T.; Franco, R.; Pappa, A.; Panayiotidis, M.I. Chemical Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Epilobium parviflorum Extracts in an In Vitro Model of Human Malignant Melanoma. Plants 2023, 12, 1590. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/plants12081590
Malignant melanoma is an aggressive type of skin cancer characterised by high metastatic capacity and mortality rate. On the other hand, Epilobium parviflorum is known for its medicinal properties, including its anticancer potency. In this context, we aimed to (i) isolate various extracts of E. parviflorum, (ii) characterize their phytochemical content, and (iii) determine their cytotoxic potential in an in vitro model of human malignant melanoma. To these ends, we utilized various spectrophotometric and chromatographic (UPLC-MS/MS) approaches to document the higher content of the methanolic extract in polyphenols, soluble sugars, proteins, condensed tannins, and chlorophylls -a and -b as opposed to those of dichloromethane and petroleum. In addition, the cytotoxicity profiling of all extracts was assessed through a colorimetric-based Alamar Blue assay in human malignant melanoma (A375 and COLO-679) as well as non-tumorigenic immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Overall, the methanolic extract was shown to exert significant cytotoxicity, in a timeand concentration-dependent manner, as opposed to the other extracts. The observed cytotoxicity was confined only to human malignant melanoma cells, whereas non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cells remained relatively unaffected. Finally, the expression levels of various apoptotic genes were assessed by qRT-PCR, indicating the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic cascades.
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