Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Department of


Date of this Version

October 2007


Published in Journal of General Virology 88 (2007), 236-241; DOI 10.1099/vir.0.82066-0 Copyright © 2007 Society for General Microbiology. Used by permission.


It has previously been shown by our laboratory that OTK18, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-inducible zinc-finger protein, reduces progeny-virion production in infected human macrophages. OTK18 antiviral activity is mediated through suppression of Tat-induced HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter activity. Through the use of LTR scanning mutant vectors, the specific regions responsible for OTK18-mediated LTR suppression have been defined. Two different LTR regions were identifi ed as potential OTK18-binding sites by an enhanced DNA–transcription factor ELISA system; the negative-regulatory element (NRE) at –255/–238 and the Ets-binding site (EBS) at –150/–139 in the LTR. In addition, deletion of the EBS in the LTR blocked OTK18-mediated LTR suppression. These data indicate that OTK18 suppresses LTR activity through two distinct regulatory elements. Spontaneous mutations in these regions might enable HIV-1 to escape from OTK18 antiretroviral activity in human macrophages.