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Management of the genetic improvement of milking ewes depends: on the obvious fact that they are both dairy animals and sheep. This paper deals with the Lacaune breed situation in France. It paints out the way to build the selection scheme,on two particular aspects:the need to rationalize and simplify milk recording both for milk composition and milk yield, and the concurrent use of AI and natural mating, within the scope of a pyramidal management of the population. We sum up the main results of studies on these different aspects in this paper. In the course of the last twenty years,phenotypic and genetic improvement for the nucleus and base flocks agrees with these theorical studies.