Agricultural Economics Department


Date of this Version


Document Type



Published in Cornhusker Economics, 11-18-08. Produced by the Cooperative Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nebraska – Lincoln.


The unexpected (to many) consumer resistance to the first generation genetically modified (GM) food products that focused on producers, and aimed at increasing yields, hurt the prospects of the agricultural biotechnology sector. As a response and in an effort to win back skeptical consumers, agricultural biotechnology firms started working on food products with functional properties desirable to consumers, that are commonly known as second generation GM products. Food products in this category include vitamin A enriched rice and maize (golden rice and golden maize), high protein wheat, and high oleic soybean oil, to name a few. Recently, a new generation of genetically engineered foods, referred to as genetically engineered nutraceuticals has emerged, attracting a lot of attention and stirring up additional controversy. While many of the second generation, consumer oriented GM food products can be viewed as genetically engineered nutraceuticals, this latter category is much broader.