Agricultural Economics Department


Date of this Version



Cornhusker Economics, University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension, September 9, 2014


Copyright © 2014 University of Nebraska


Federal regulation governing management and dis-posal of the millions of tons of hog manure pro-duced every year is derived from the Clean Water Act (CWA). Enacted in 1972, the CWA amended the 1948 Federal Water Pollution Control Act to shift regulatory oversight from states to the federal government by requiring the former to adopt a federally-mandated National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the program empowers the agency to issue permits to facilities applying for permission to discharge and to do so within the agency's Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards. Discharge permits may also be issued by states authorized to implement the CWA. However, the EPA retains the authority to enforce any violation of state-issued permits. The EPA also has the power to overrule state deci-sions on water pollution.