Agricultural Leadership, Education, and Communication, Department of


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Published in Sex Roles 56 (2007), pp. 71–83. Copyright © 2007 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Used by permission. Published online January 5, 2007.


Relationships of gender, age, and education to leadership styles and leaders' influence tactics were examined with 56 leaders and 234 followers from a variety of organizations. Leadership behaviors were measured with the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ—rater version). Influence tactics were measured with Yukl’s Influence Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to test behavioral differences attributed to leaders' gender, age, and education groups, as well as the interaction of age and education with gender. Results show that gender produced a small direct effect on leadership behaviors. The interaction of gender and education produced consistent differences in leadership behaviors. Implications for future research are provided, and a call for reanalysis of previously published work is advised.