Date of this Version
This research evaluates the use of a buffered vinegar and lemon juice concentrate (LV) solution on the quality of restructured beef and turkey rolls. Two studies were conducted to evaluate processing and ingredient concentration. Beef and turkey rolls were formulated with minimal ingredients. 1.5% sea salt, 0.5% turbinado sugar, with LV or no LV. Study one evaluated length of mixing time (2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes) on quality and sensory attributes with 2.5% LV or 0% LV (C). Study two was divided into four treatments, 0% (C), 1.5%, 2.5%, and 3.5% LV, used to evaluate the effects of three levels of LV on quality and sensory attributes. In study one, C treatment increased (P < 0.05) cook yield for beef, however, mixing time had no effect (P > 0.05) on cook yield for beef or turkey. Slices of turkey and beef with LV were darker (L*) and less red (a*). Mixing times increased (P < 0.05) L* for turkey and beef while a* values decreased for beef slices. Twenty minutes of mixing made beef tougher (P < 0.05). Study two found no difference (P > 0.05) in cooking yield between treatments. The pH of the cooked turkey role decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing LV. Slices of beef and turkey L* values were lower (P < 0.05) for LV, and a* values for turkey were lower when compared to C. Most textural analysis for were not different. C turkey slices were less chewy (P < 0.05) than LV 3.5%. Sensory analysis found LV rated higher (P < 0.05) for overall flavor and acceptability for beef. No differences (P > 0.05) were found for overall flavor and acceptability of turkey. Mixing time can affect final product color and the addition of LV can negatively affect beef color when making medium rare roast beef. The addition of LV in reduced salt beef rolls can make the product more flavorful and acceptable to consumers.
Advisor: Dennis E. Burson With special thanks to Roger W. Mandigo and Harshavardhan Thippareddi