Anthropology, Department of


First Advisor

Sophia Perdikaris

Second Advisor

William Belcher

Third Advisor

Wayne Babchuk

Date of this Version



Schulz, E. M. (2022). Teaching Pedagogy of Online vs In-Person Learning: Relative to Osteology. (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Nebraska-Lincoln.


A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Master of Arts, Major: Anthropology, Under the Supervision of Professor Sophia Perdikaris. Lincoln, Nebraska: April 12, 2022

Copyright 2022 Erik M. Schulz

For additional 3D models please reach out to the author or go to the link below:


With the Covid-19 global pandemic and the increasing need for a better way to teach on a global scale, this study focuses on a possible alternative to standard teaching that would address these issues. This research study examines the effectiveness of using 3D-scanned images vs cast bones in teaching human osteology. There are two main teaching concepts examined: the first examines the pedagogy of teaching and assessing if a 3D or online virtual classroom assessment compares favorably to a more traditional method of teaching osteology and other similar courses in a hands-on setting. The second consideration is to assess the quality and effectiveness of the 3D scans compared to a bone or cast. The accuracy of the 3D images is not only important for education, but if the scans prove accurate, they could be used in other contexts such as peer-reviewed research and legal settings.

This paper will dive into the current education practices, 3D imagery, and the benefits and consequences of using 3D imagery in different settings such as education, research and legal settings. The main goal of this study is to look at how 3D imagery can be beneficial to education. So, throughout this paper, there will be techniques discussed about how to create 3D images, and how to use them in a class setting. The paper focuses on a human subject’s study where participants took part in a mini class study to test the effectiveness of 3D learning compared to cast learning. While this was the main study, another part of the study included testing the accuracy using experienced students and testing their knowledge using a 3D image. The study proved to be a success even though the study size was a smaller than anticipated. The students proved that they could learn the material using 3D images, and that the accuracy of the images is just as high quality as the original item.

Advisor: Sophia Perdikaris

Left Scapula.stl (3451 kB)
Left Scapula (3D)

Left Humerus.stl (3821 kB)
Left Humerus (3D)

Right Femur.stl (27782 kB)
Right Femur (3D)

Cranium.stl (50377 kB)
Cranium (3D)

Mandible.stl (10978 kB)
Mandible (3D)

Right Os Coxa.stl (28466 kB)
Right Os Coxa (3D)

Included in

Anthropology Commons