Education and Human Sciences, College of (CEHS)


First Advisor

Ian M. Newman

Second Advisor

Eric S. Buhs

Date of this Version



A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Master of Arts, Major: Educational Psychology, Under the Supervision of Professor Ian M. Newman and Eric S. Buhs. Lincoln, Nebraska: December 2018

Copyright (c) 2018 Niran Tamrakar


Alcohol plays a vital role in various aspects of Nepalese society. It also presents public health risks. Though adolescents in Nepal are at high risk for negative consequences from alcohol use, there is limited information available on their alcohol behaviors and beliefs. The present study aims to describe alcohol expectancies among a sample of secondary students in Nepal to identify and understand motivations underlying their alcohol-related behaviors. A self-report survey was administered to 591 students from different Englishmedium schools in the city of Pokhara. This study began with the Chinese Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (CAAEQ), then used qualitative methods to discard or revise the CAAEQ questions for use in Nepal and to identify possible additional alcohol expectancies among Nepalese adolescents. The revised instrument was named Nepalese Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaires (NAAEQ). The Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 4-factor solution with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from 0.55 to 0.78. The Confirmatory factor analysis identified a 2-factor solution to be the best fit among different models compared. Out of 4 factors, two factors “global positive” and “parental influence” were used in further analysis to identify various relationships. Mean scores on global positive expectancy differed significantly by gender, drinking status and alcohol intention. There were also significant effects for grade, drinking status and alcohol intention on the parental influence expectancy factor. Interestingly, the effect for ethnicity on both factors was not significant suggesting the possible disappearance of ethnic norms on alcohol use. Findings from the study suggest the drinking behavior in adolescents is a function of multiple factors (age, gender, grade and intention to drink). These findings from the study have important application in the field of intervention and policy design.

Advisors: Ian M. Newman, Eric S. Buhs