Education and Human Sciences, College of (CEHS)


First Advisor

Soo-Young Hong

Second Advisor

Holly Hatton-Bowers

Date of this Version



Yao, Y. (2019), The role of prenatal empowerment in predicting parent and infant outcomes among working women (Master's Thesis, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln).


A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Master of Science, Major: Child, Youth & Family Studies, Under the Supervision of Professors Soo-Young Hong and Holly Hatton-Bowers. Lincoln, Nebraska: December 2019

Copyright 2019 Yao Yao


The current study examined the relationship between women’s prenatal empowerment and children’s social-emotional competence. A longitudinal study was conducted in Nebraska that included (N = 38) working women and their infants. Mothers’ prenatal empowerment and infants’ social-emotional competence, parental stress, parent-child relationship, and mothers’ knowledge of infant development were measured. Results from the current study did not support a direct association between mothers’ prenatal empowerment and infants’ social-emotional competence. However, mothers’ prenatal empowerment and infant’s social-emotional competence were both significantly related to parental stress. These findings indicate that prenatal empowerment may have an indirect relationship with infants’ social-emotional development.

Advisors: Soo-Young Hong and Holly Hatton-Bowers