Education and Human Sciences, College of (CEHS)


Date of this Version

April 2007


A DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate College at the University of Nebraska in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Major: Human Sciences (Child, Youth and Family Studies)
Under the Supervision of Professor John DeFrain
Lincoln, Nebraska: May 2007
Copyright 2007 MaLinda Hill-Schmidtke.


Advisor: John DeFrain

The Kugeria Women Group (KWG) of Murinduko, Kenya, founded in 1989, built an 11- kilometer water pipeline to provide potable water. Almost 20 years later, the pipeline is still providing water to over 300 families and is considered an example of a successful women’s micro-initiative. The two major goals of this dissertation were: 1) to investigate the organizational structures to determine which elements aided KWG in its successfully maintaining a water pipeline, and 2) to analyze KWG’s water consumption to ascertain if KWG stayed within its own pre-described regulations.

Result Mapping found the KWG’s success is an outcome of using a variety of paradigms: 1.) communication approach, 2.) community empowerment, 3.) the performance measurement system, 4.) the gender approach and women’s cohesions, 5.) the transparency and accountability, and 6.) health and sanitation and water conservation. Result Mapping also showed negative impacts, which were the high cost of joining the pipeline and the increased differences between the haves and have-nots.

Paired sample t-tests revealed 1.) a significant increase in the amount of water used in a drought year when compared to a normal year (p < .001), and 2.) no significant differences in the amount of water used during the dry and rainy seasons for both the drought and normal year.

The results of the ANOVAs showed 1.) no significant differences among the FOUNDERS, FIRSTWAVE, and SECONDWAVE in mean annual water use for a drought year, and 2.) a significant difference in water used by the FOUNDERS and FIRSTWAVE (p < .05) and FOUNDERS and SECONDWAVE (p < .01) for the mean annual water use for a normal year. For a drought year, findings supported the members adhering to the water consumption rules; however, for a normal year, FOUNDING members overused the water source. Combining qualitative and quantitative analysis, the KWG received a final grade of B for its successfully maintaining the pipeline and good governance.

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