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This paper examined the Role of Libraries and Librarians in Open Educational Resources (OER) in selected public university libraries in Tanzania. Specifically, the study sought to find out the level of OER awareness among librarians and the role played by libraries and librarians in OER in Tanzania. The study also identified challenges encountered by librarians in promoting access and use of OER. Fifty two librarians of different ranks and academic qualifications from four public university libraries participated in this study. These were selected using simple random sampling techniques. Data was collected through a self administered questionnaire and documentary review. Data collected was analyzed using Excel and SPSS version 18.0. The findings show that librarians are aware of the concept OER and also play multiple roles in promoting awareness on OER and its integration in university websites to facilitate their accessibility and use The study further revealed that limited awareness on existing OER and lack of policy guidelines on the use of OER are major challenges facing librarians in promoting access and use of OER. The study recommends more OER awareness creation campaigns and formulation of institutional OER policies.