Department of Management


Date of this Version



Academy of Management Journal 1997, Vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 1122-1149.


Published by Academy of Management. Used by permission.


Results of a primary meta-analysis indicated a significant main effect of the organizational behavior modification (O.B. Mod.) approach on task performance (d. = .51; a 17 percent increase) and a significant treatment-by-study interaction. To account for within-group heterogeneity of effect sizes, we conducted a two-level theory-driven moderator analysis by partitioning the sample of studies first into manufacturing and service groups and then into seven classes of reinforcement interventions. Results indicated a stronger average effect of O.B. Mod. in manufacturing organizations, moderation by the type of contingent interventions, and "pairwise" differences among average effect sizes in both organizational types. The practical implications of these findings for solving