Management Department


Date of this Version


Document Type



Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (2015), DOI:10.1111/joop.12123 [online ahead of print April 25, 2015]


This article is a U.S. government work, and is not subject to copyright in the United States.


Organizations have increasingly sought to adopt resilience-building programmes to prevent absenteeism, counterproductive work behaviour, and other stress-related issues. However, the effectiveness of these programmes remains unclear as a comprehensive review of existing primary evidence has not been undertaken. Using 42 independent samples across 37 studies, the present meta-analysis sought to address this limitation in the literature by summarizing the effectiveness of resilience-building programmes implemented in organizational contexts. Results demonstrated that the overall effect of such programmes was small (d = 0.21) and that programme effects diminish over time (dproximal = 0.26 vs. ddistal = 0.07). Alternatively, moderator analyses revealed that programmes targeting individuals thought to be at greater risk of experiencing stress and lacking core protective factors showed the opposite effect over time. Programmes employing a one-on-one delivery format (e.g., coaching) were most effective, followed by the classroom-based group delivery format. Programmes using train-the-trainer and computer-based delivery formats were least effective. Finally, substantially stronger effects were observed among studies employing single-group within-participant designs, in comparison with studies utilizing between-participant designs. Taken together, these findings provide important theoretical and practical implications for advancing the study and use of resilience-building in the workplace.