U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, Nebraska


Document Type


Date of this Version



Journal of Vector Ecology 31(1): 71-78. 2006


Responses of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex nigripalpus to volatiles and compounds associated with bovine and avian blood that were presented in collagen membranes were evaluated in olfactometer and landing assays. The presence of attractants produced by blood was supported by more attraction of all species to blood than water controls in the olfactometer. Females of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were more attracted to bovine blood than to avian blood, but there was no difference in Cx. nigripalpus responses. In landing assays, significantly more females of all species landed on casings with blood than on water controls. There was no difference in landing of Ae. aegypti on bovine or avian blood. However, significantly more females of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus landed on avian blood compared to bovine blood. Blood presented in collagen casings was an effective method for evaluating in-flight attraction and landing in all three species. In the olfactometer, several individual compounds elicited attraction in all species, but none were as attractive as blood for all species. In landing assays, several organic acids and sulfides elicited landing, with Ae. aegypti responding to the greatest number of compounds. These assay methods are effective for evaluation of volatile compounds from blood, and although responses were obtained to several compounds, none were as effective as blood in the olfactometer and landing assays.