US Geological Survey


Date of this Version



Ecological Restoration Vol. 37, No. 3, 2019 ISSN 1522-4740 E-ISSN 1543-4079


2019 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.


Due to the many challenges facing waterbird populations (Jia et al. 2018, Wetlands International 2018), it has become common practice to limit disturbance to breeding colonies whenever possible to maximize reproductive success. While this may require often unpopular management techniques including beach closures (Jorgensen et al. 2015, Mayo et al. 2015) and predator removal (Neuman et al. 2004, Stocking et al. 2017), such actions are sometimes necessary for the success of the colony. However, there are instances when eliminating disturbance is not possible and birds must be attracted to a new site. A common method for attracting waterbirds to a desired location is paired auditory and visual attractants such as decoys and conspecific calls, a highly effective approach for terns (Jeffries and Brunton 2001, Roby et al. 2002, Arnold et al. 2011), murres (Sawyer and Fogle 2013), and other colonial nesting waterbirds (see Friesen et al. 2017 for a review).