I. Introduction

II. The Connection to Bankruptcy Rule 9011

III. The Influence of Bankruptcy Rule 9011 on the Bad Faith Question in Involuntary Cases

IV. Bankruptcy Rule 9011 and Section 303(i)(2): A Purposive Analysis ... A. Rule 9011 ... B. Section 303(i)(2)

V. Diverging Conceptualizations of Good Faith ... A. Excluder Analysis ... B. Giving a Positive Twist to Good Faith ... C. Good Faith Reconsidered ... D. The Good Faith Filing Requirement

VI. Bad Faith and Bankruptcy Policy: A Quixotic Quest for Guidance ... A. Overview ... B. Bankruptcy Policy: Competing Theories ... 1. Economic Theory ... 2. Alternative Explanations for the Role of Bankruptcy ... C. The Relationship between Bankruptcy Policy, Involuntary Bankruptcy, and Bad Faith ... 1. The Limits of Economic Analysis ... 2. The Consequences and Limits of the Alternative Explanations

VII. The Occasion for Involuntary Bankruptcy

VIII. Toward a New Standard for Determining Bad Faith ... A. The Broad Purposive Approach: Promises Unfulfilled ... B. Implications for the Bad Faith Cases ... C. Rule 11 Standards Revisited ... 1. The Duty to Make Reasonable Inquiry ... 2. The Improper Purpose Prong

IX. Bad Faith in Involuntary Bankruptcy Filings Reconsidered and Redefined

X . Conclusion