I. Introduction

II. History of the Relitigation Exception ... A. Origins of the Act and the Relitigation Exception ... B. Toucey v. New York Life Ins. Co.: The Demise of the Relitigation Exception ... C. The 1948 Revision of the Act: The Revival of the Relitigation Exception ... D. Post-Toucey: Protecting Judgments by Enjoining Claims That Have Not Actually Been Litigated ... E. Chick Kam Choo v. Exxon Corp. and Its Progeny ... 1. Chick Kam Choo v. Exxon Corp. ... 2. Lower Court Interpretation of Chick Kam Choo: The New Attack on the Relitigation Exception ... a. Majority View among the Circuits ... b. The Misinterpretation of Chick Kam Choo ... c. The View of the Ninth Circuit

III. The Proper Interpretation of the Act ... A. Congressional Intent: Restoring the Pre-Toucey Law … B. Ascertaining Congressional Intent: The Significance of Congressional Silence and Inaction ... C. Carrying Out the Purposes of the Act ... D. The Protection of Federal Rights ... E. The Protection of Consent Decrees

IV. Conclusion