Department of Management


Date of this Version



Published in Human Resource Development Review 2:4 (December 2003), pp. 385-405; doi 10.1 17711534484303257949 Copyright © 2003 Sage Publications. Used by permission.


Research suggests that women have progressed in equalizing their representation, status, and earning power as managers in organizations. These improvements may not reflect the career advancement of managerial African American women. African American women contend with the convergence of race and gender in improving their organizational standing and career advancement opportunities. The literature on workplace social networks indicates that informal more than formal socialization systems are salient in advancing careers. Due to the duality of race and gender, African American women in managerial and executive positions may be forced into out-group status in terms of informal social networks. Informal social networks for managerial African American women may be less accessible and may operate under different dimensions than for their African American male and White female and male counterparts. Critical examination of the effect of the interaction of race and gender on informal networks of managerial African American women in organizations is needed.