I. Introduction

II. Economic Deprivation and Political Marginalization in the Sinai … A. The Sinai’s Strategic Significance ... B. Neglect and Criminalization of the Bedouin

III. Bringing the Sinai into the National Fold ... A. Long-Term Investment in Development ... B. De-Securitizing Development in Sinai ... C. Political Inclusion and Integrating Bedouin into Security Services

IV. Contextualizing Sinai’s Transition into a Failing Sub-State ... A. Festering Grievances and Militants in Sinai before the 2011 Uprising ... B. 2011 Uprisings Create a Security and Political Vacuum ... C. Violence in Sinai Reaches New Heights after Morsi Is Deposed

V. Conclusion