I. Introduction

II. Case Synopsis

III. The Federalization of Human Sex Trafficking

IV. The Canons of Statutory Interpretation ... A. Plain Language of §§ 1591 and 16911 ... B. The Legislative History ... 1. Section 1591’s Legislative History ... 2. The Use of the T-Visa in Discouraging Obstruction ... 3. The Legislative History of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act ... a. The History and Purpose of National Sex Offender Registries ... b. Sex Trafficking as an Offense under SORNA ... c. The Rule of Lenity

V. Doctrinal and Theoretical Framework ... A. Theories of Conspiracy: The Inappropriateness of Group Culpability ... B. Theories of Punishment

VI. Judicial and Legislative Intervention ... A. Until Congress Intervenes, the District Courts Are Perfectly Situated to Make the Registry Decision after a Sentencing Hearing Where the Issue Is Fully Vetted ... B. Sex Offender Registry as a Penalty for Obstruction under § 1591 ... C. The Consequences of Sex-Offender Registration for Sex-Trafficking Crimes ... D. Legislative Intervention Needed ... E. Practical Considerations

VII. Conclusion