National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

4101 LaPorte Avenue
Fort Collins, CO 80521
tel: (970) 266-6000 fax: (970) 266-6032


The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

2003

Aspects of Swift Fox Ecology in Southeastern Colorado, David E. Andersen, Thomas R. Laurion, John R. Cary, Robert S. Sikes, Mary A. McLeod, and Eric . M. Gese

From Seedlings to Crowns: These Species Cover It All, Wendy M. Arjo

Is it a Pocket Gopher or Mole?, Wendy M. Arjo

Mountain Beaver: The Little Rodent with a Large Appetite, Wendy M. Arjo

The Role of Toxicants in Forest Management, Wendy M. Arjo

Characteristics of current and historical kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) dens in the Great Basin Desert, Wendy M. Arjo, Tim J. Bennett, and Adam J. Kozlowski

Serologic Survey for Diseases in Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from Two Ecologically Distinct Areas of Utah, Wendy M. Arjo, Eric M. Gese, Cassity Bromley, Adam Kozlowski, and Elizabeth S. Williams

CHEMICAL REPELLENTS FOR REDUCING CROP DAMAGE BY BLACKBIRDS, Michael L. Avery and John L. Cummings

THE ROLE OF RESEARCH IN EXPANDED REGIONAL MANAGEMENT OF DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANTS, Scott C. Barras and Mark E. Tobin

BLACKBIRD AND STARLING STRIKES TO CIVIL AIRCRAFT IN THE UNITED STATES, 1990-2001, Scott C. Barras, Sandra E. Wright, and Thomas E. Seamans

Through a Bird’s Eye – Exploring Avian Sensory Perception, Robert C. Beason

Coyote (Canis latrans), Marc Bekoff and Eric M. Gese

Evaluation of an animal-activated scarecrow and a monofilament fence for reducing deer use of soybean fields, Jeff Beringer, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Joshua J. Millspaugh

LETHAL CONTROL OF RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS TO MANAGE DAMAGE TO SUNFLOWER: AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION, Bradley F. Blackwell, Eric Huszar, George M. Linz, and Richard A. Dolbeer

Comparison Of Isoflurane And Sevoflurane For Anesthesia In Beaver, Stewart W. Breck and James S. Gaynor

CHALLENGES OF IMPLEMENTING THE DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT, Kristina Casscles Godwin, D. Tommy King, Peter Butchko, and Richard Chipman

A REVIEW OF PATHOGENS OF AGRICULTURAL AND HUMAN HEALTH INTEREST FOUND IN CANADA GEESE, Larry Clark

A REVIEW OF PATHOGENS OF AGRICULTURAL AND HUMAN HEALTH INTEREST FOUND IN BLACKBIRDS, Larry Clark and Robert G. McLean

COMMON RAVEN NESTS IN EASTERN KENTUCKY, John J. Cox, Nathan W. Seward, Jeffrey L. Larkin, and David S. Maehr

AN OVERVIEW OF CURRENT BLACKBIRD RESEARCH IN THE SOUTHERN RICE GROWING REGION OF THE UNITED STATES, John L. Cummings and Michael L. Avery

MANAGING COMMON NIGHTHAWKS AT MCCONNELL AIR FORCE BASE, KANSAS, TO REDUCE AIRCRAFT STRIKES, John L. Cummings, Patricia A. Pipas, James C. Luchsinger, James E. Davis Jr., Michael J. Pipas, and Jean B. Bourassa

DIETARY TOXICITY TEST FOR 2% DRC-1339-TREATED BROWN RICE ON NONTARGET AVIAN SPECIES, John L. Cummings, Darryl L. York, Kirk J. Shively, Patricia A. Pipas, Randal S. Stahl, and James E. Davis Jr.

POTENTIAL CHEMICALS TO MANAGE LlGHT GOOSE POPULATIONS, John Cummings and Pete Poulos

NONTARGET BIRD EXPOSURE TO DRC-1339 DURING FALL IN NORTH DAKOTA AND SPRING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, Thomas W. Custer, Christine M. Custer, Paul M. Dummer, George M. Linz, Louis Sileo, Randal S. Stahl, and John J. Johnston

LEIOCEPHALUS CARNITUS ARMOURI (Little Bahama Curly-talied lizard), Christopher L. Dean, Henry T. Smith, and Richard M. Engeman

Scavenging by vertebrates: behavioral, ecological, and evolutionary perspectives on an important energy transfer pathway in terrestrial ecosystems, Travis L. DeVault, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and John A. Shivik

AGE-SPECIFIC REPRODUCTION BY FEMALE LAUGHING GULLS (LARUS ATRICILLA), Richard A. Dolbeer and Glen E. Bernhardt

WADING BIRD MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH ON NORTH AMERICAN AQUACULTURE FACILITIES, Brian Dorr and Jimmy D. Taylor II

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO NEOSPORA CANINUM, SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA, AND TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN WILD HORSES FROM CENTRAL WYOMING, J. P. Dubey, S.M. Mitchell, J.K. Morrow, J.C. Rhyan, L.M. Stewart, D.E. Granstrom, S. Romand, P. Thulliez, W.J. Saville, and D.S. Lindsay

EFFICACY OF ZINC PHOSPHIDE FOR CONTROLLING NORWAY RATS, ROOF RATS, HOUSE MICE, PEROMYSCUS SPP., PRAIRIE DOGS AND GROUND SQUIRRELS: A LITERATURE REVIEW (1942-2000), John D. Eisemann, Brett E. Petersen, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COMPOUND DRC-1339 (3-CHLORO-4-METHYLANILINE HYDROCHLORIDE) TO BIRDS, John D. Eisemann, Patricia A. Pipas, and John L. Cummings

More on the need to get the basics right: population indices, Richard M. Engeman

Population Monitoring in Support of a Rabies Vaccination Program for Skunks in Arizona, Richard M. Engeman, Kevin L. Christensen, Michael J. Pipas, and David L. Bergman

LONGEVITY OF A WOODHOUSE'S TOAD, Richard M. Engeman and Melvin A. Engeman

A general model for predicting brown tree snake capture rates, Richard M. Engeman, N. Paige Groninger, and Daniel S. Vice

Monitoring predators to optimize their management for marine turtle nest protection, Richard M. Engeman, R. Erik Martin, Bernice Constantin, Ryan Noel, and John Woolard

Monetary valuation methods for economic analysis of the benefit-costs of protecting rare wildlife species from predators, Richard M. Engeman, Stephanie A. Schwiff, Henry T. Smith, and Bernice Constantin

An economic assessment of the potential for predator management to benefit Puerto Rican parrots, Richard M. Engeman, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Felipe Cano, and Bernice Constantin

AMOUNT AND ECONOMIC VALUATION OF FERAL HOG DAMAGE TO A UNIQUE BASIN MARSH WETLAND IN FLORIDA, Richard M. Engeman, Henry T. Smith, Robert G. Severson, Mary Ann M. Severson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Bernice Constantin, and Daniel Griffen

AMOUNT AND ECONOMIC VALUATION OF FERAL HOG DAMAGE TO A UNIQUE BASIN MARSH WETLAND IN FLORIDA, Richard M. Engeman, Henry T. Smith, Robert G. Severson, Mary Ann M. Severson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Bernice Constantin, and Daniel Griffin

Prevalence and economic value of feral swine damage to native habitat in three Florida state parks, Richard M. Engeman, Henry T. Smith, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Bernice Constantin, John Woolard, Mark Nelson, and Daniel Griffin

On analytical methods and inferences for 2 x 2 contingency table data using wildlife examples, Richard M. Engeman and George D. Swanson

Mitigating Impacts of Terrestrial lnvasive Species, Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Coyotes; Coyotes in Yellowstone National Park: the influence, Eric M. Gese

hlanagement of carnivore predation as a means to reduce livestock losses: the study of coyotes (Canis latrans) in North America, Eric M. Gese

Use of frightening devices in wildlife damage management, Jason M. Gilsdorf, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Fear and loathing: the modulatory affect of stress on memory formation and its wildlife management implications, Arla G. Hile

Using Color-infrared Photography and GIS to Quantify Cattail Coverage in Wetlands, H. Jeffrey Homan, Linda B. Penry, and George M. Linz

Using Color-infrared Photography and GIS Using Color-infrared Photography and GIS, H. Jeffrey Homan, Linda B. Penry, and George M. Linz

Spring distribution of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) following cattail reduction with glyphosate herbicide, H.J. Homan, G. M. Linz, R.C. Carlson, and W.J. Bleier

Pre- and post-harvest movements of female rice-field rats in West Japanese rice fields, Jens Jacob, Dale L. Nolte, and Rudy Hartono

Detection of West Nile Virus Infection in Birds in the United States by Blocking ELISA and Immunohistochemistry, Martine Jozan, Richard Evans, Robert McLean, Roy Hall, Basil Tangredi, Lisa Reed, and Jamesina Scott

Adult male emigration and a female-based social organization in swift foxes, Vulpes velox, Jan F. Kamler, Warren B. Ballard, Eric M. Gese, Robert L. Harriqson, Seija Karki, and Kevin Mote

EVALUATION OF GNRH CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINE IN CAPTIVE FERAL SWINE IN FLORIDA, G. Killian, L. Miller, J. Rhyan, T. Dees, D. Perry, and H. Doten

Direct Analysis of Plasticizers in Aqueous Samples by Atomspheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (APCI-MS-MS, Bruce A. Kimball, Thomas M. Primus, and John J. Johnston

CHEMICAL DEFENSE AND MAMMALIAN HERBIVORES, Bruce A. Kimball and Frederick D. Provenza

Live capture of denning mammals using an improved box-trap enclosure: kit foxes as a test case, Adam J. Kozlowski, Tim J. Bennett, Eric M. Gese, and Wendy M. Arjo

TEMPORAL GENETIC VARIATION IN A COYOTE (CANIS LATRANS) POPULATION EXPERIENCING HIGH TURNOVER, Christen Lenney William, Karen Blejwas, John J. Johnston, and Michael M. Jaeger

A coyote in sheep's clothing: predator identification from saliva, Christen Lenney Williams, Karen Blejwas, John J. Johnston, and Michael M. Jaeger

REDUCING BLACKBIRD-HUMAN CONFLICTS IN AGRICULTURE AND FEEDLOTS: NEW METHODS FOR AN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT APPROACH, George M. Linz, H. Jeffrey Homan, Linda B. Penry, and Philip Mastrangelo

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPRING AND FALL BLACKBIRD ROOSTS IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS, George M. Linz, Richard S. Sawin, Mark W. Lutman, H. Jeffrey Homan, Linda B. Penry, and William J. Bleier

Baiting blackbirds (Icteridae) in stubble grain fields during spring migration in South Dakota, G. M. Linz, G.A. Knutsen, H.J. Homan, and W.J. Bleier

West Nile Virus and Wildlife Health, Peter P. Marra, Sean M. Griffing, and Robert G. McLean

NWRC: Providing World Leadership in Science-Based Problem Management, J. Russell Mason

Cool Temperatures Elicit Reproduction in a Biologically Invasive Predator, the Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis), Tom Mathies and Lowell A. Miller

DEVELOPMENT OF A SYNTHETIC MATERIALS MIMIC FOR VULTURE OLFACTION RESEARCH, Richard E. Mauldin, Bruce A. Kimball, John J. Johnston, Jerome C. Hurley, and Michael L. Avery

THE EMERGENCE OF MAJOR AVIAN DISEASES IN NORTH AMERICA: WEST NILE VIRUS AND MORE, Robert G. McLean

West Nile Virus: Emerging Threat to Public Health and Animal Health, Robert G. McLean

EVALUATION OF GNRH CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINE USING DOMESTIC SWINE AS A MODEL FOR FERAL HOGS, Lowell Miller, Jack Rhyan, and Gary Killian

Wolf Depredation Trends and the Use of Fladry Barriers to Protect Livestock in Western North America, Marco Musiani, Charles Mamo, Luigi Boitani, Carolyn Callaghan, C. Cormack Gates, Livia Mattei, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Stewart W. Breck, and Giulia Volpi

Predator presence affects the reproductive success of prey in outdoor conditions, Sergey V. Naidenko, Svetlana V. Naidenko, Larry Clark, and Vera V. Voznessenskaya

Bears Prefer Trees in the Spring, Dale L. Nolte

Developing Approaches to Reduce Wildlife Damage to Forest Resources, Dale L. Nolte

Developing Strategies to Alleviate Wildlife Damage to Forest Resources, Dale L. Nolte

Fencing Out Big Game Species, Dale L. Nolte

Managing Ungulates to Protect Trees, Dale L. Nolte

Repellents are Socially Acceptable Tools, Dale L. Nolte

Roof rat invasion of an urban desert island, Dale L. Nolte, David Bergman, and John Townsend

Feasibility of non-lethal approaches to protect riparian plants from foraging beavers in North America, Dale L. Nolte, Mark W. Lutman, David L. Bergman, Wendy M. Arjo, and Kelly R. Perry

TRAINING DEER TO AVOID SITES THROUGH NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT, Dale L. Nolte, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Kelly R. Perry, and Suzanne E. Adams

Timber Damage by Black Bears, Dale L. Nolte, Kimberly K. Wagner, and Andy Trent

IMPACT OF BLACKBIRD DAMAGE TO SUNFLOWER: BIOENERGETIC AND ECONOMIC MODELS, Brian D. Peer, H. Jeffrey Homan, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Restoration of the Red Wolf, Michael K. Phillips, V. Gary Henry, and Brian T. Kelly

NONTARGET BIRD USE OF DRC-1339 BAIT SITES DURING OPERATIONAL BAITING PROGRAMS IN LOUISIANA AND TEXAS, Patricia A. Pipas, John L. Cummings, John D. Eisemann, and Richard M. Engeman

An individual-based model of canid populations: modelling territoriality and social structure, William C. Pitt, Paul W. Box, and Frederick F. Knowlton

Liquid Chromatographic Determination of 4,4'-Dinitrocarbanilide, the Active Component of the Infertility Agent Nicarbazin, in Chicken, Duck, Goose, and Snake Eggs, Thomas M. Primus, Dennis J. Kohler, Margaret A. Goodall, Christi Yoder, Thomas Mathies, Lowell Miller, John J. Johnston, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

ESTIMATING THE NUMBER OF NONBREEDING MALE RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS IN CENTRAL NORTH DAKOTA, Richard S. Sawin, George M. Linz, Ryan L. Wimberly, Mark W. Lutman, and William J. Bleier

Predators on Red-winged Blackbird nests in eastern North Dakota, Richard S. Sawin, Mark W. Lutman, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Are birds scared by rotating mirrors?, Thomas W. Seamans, Scott C. Barras, and Zachary J. Patton

Wariness of coyotes to camera traps relative to social status and territory boundaries, E.S. Sequin, Michael M. Jaeger, Peter F. Brussard, and Reginald H. Barrett

The influence of predator odours and overcrowded mouse odours on regulation of oestrous cycles in house mice (Mus musculus), Natalia Yu. Severtzov, Svetlana V. Naidenko, Anna E. Voznesenskaia, Georgy J. Krivomazov, Larry Clark, and Vera V. Voznessenskaya

Nonlethal Techniques for Managing Predation: Primary and Secondary Repellents, John A. Shivik, Adrian Treves, and Peggy Callahan

An Economic Analysis of a Simple Structural Method to Reduce Road-Kills of Royal Terns at Bridges, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Henry T. Smith, Alice M. Bard, Terese V. Harbor, and Richard M. Engeman

WILDLIFE ROAD-KILLS IN AN URBAN PARK IN FLORIDA, Henry T. Smith, Robert M. Barry, Richard M. Engeman, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and William J.B. Miller

A REVIEW OF THE RANGE, DISTRIBUTION, AND ECOLOGY OF THE INVASIVE NORTHERN CURLY-TAILED LIZARD IN FLORIDA, Henry T. Smith and Richard M. Engeman

LEIOCEPHALUS CARINATUS ARMOURI (Northern Curlytailed Lizard) OPPORTUNISTIC PREDATION, Henry T. Smith and Richard M. Engeman

Pseudemys Peninsularis (Penisula Cooter). Estuarine Observation and Interaction with Giant Land Crabs, Henry T. Smith and Richard M. Engeman

Determination of 4,4'-Dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), a Component of Nicarbazin, in Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) Eggshells Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Randal S. Stahl, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Teresa L. Buettgenbach, and John J. Johnston

Determination of 4,4'-Dintrocarbanilide (DNC), a Component of Nicarbazin, in Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) Eggshells Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Randal S. Stahl, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Teresa L. Buettgenbach, and John J. Johnston

4,4'-Dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) concentrations in egg shells as a predictor of nicarbazin consumption and DNC dose in goose eggs, Randal S. Stahl, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Dennis Kohler, and John J. Johnston