National Wildlife Research Center

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


A bioeconomic model for the optimization of local canine rabies control, Aaron Anderson, Johann Kotze, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Brody Hatch, Chris Slootmaker, Anne Conan, Darryn Knobel, and Louis H. Nel

Predation and disease-related economic impacts of wild pigs on livestock producers in 13 states, Aaron M. Anderson, Chris Slootmaker, Erin Harper, Ryan S. Miller, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Non-native insects dominate daytime pollination in a high-elevation Hawaiian dryland ecosystem, Clare E. Aslan, Aaron B. Shiels, William Haines, and Christina T. Liang

NECROBIOME FRAMEWORK FOR BRIDGING DECOMPOSITION ECOLOGY OF AUTOTROPHICALLY AND HETEROTROPHICALLY DERIVED ORGANIC MATTER, Mark Eric Benbow, Philip S. Barton, Michael D. Ulyshen, James C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, Michael S. Strickland, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Heather R. Jordan, and Jennifer L. Pechal

Necrobiome framework for bridging decomposition ecology of autotrophically and heterotrophically derived organic matter, M. Eric Benbow, Philip S. Barton, Michael D. Ulyshen, James C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, Michael S. Strickland, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Heather R. Jordan, and Jennifer L. Pechal

Analysis of Iophenoxic Acid Analogues in Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes Auropunctatus) Sera for Use as an Oral Rabies Vaccination Biological Marker, Are R. Berentsen, Robert T. Sugihara, Cynthia G. Payne, Israel Leinbach, Steven F. Volker, Ad Vos, Steffen Ortmann, and Amy T. Gilbert

Parasitism, host behavior, and invasive species, Sarah N. Bevins

Road hogs: Implications from GPS collared feral swine in pastureland habitat on the general utility of road-based observation techniques for assessing abundance, Raoul K. Boughton, Benjamin L. Allen, Eric A. Tillman, Samantha M. Wisely, and Richard M. Engeman

The intrepid urban coyote: a comparison of bold and exploratory behavior in coyotes from urban and rural environments, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, Peter Mahoney, and Julie K. Young

Potential role of wildlife in the USA in the event of a foot-and-mouth disease virus incursion, Vienna R. Brown and Sarah N. Bevins

A potential new tool for the toolbox: assessing gene drives for eradicating invasive rodent populations, K. J. Campbell, J.R. Saah, P.R. Brown, J. Godwin, G.R. Howald, A. Piaggio, P. Thomas, D.M. Tompkins, D. Threadgill, J. Delborne, D.M. Kanavy, T. Kuiken, H. Packard, M. Serr, and A. Shiels

Wildlife Management Practices Associated with Pathogen Exposure in Non-NativeWild Pigs in Florida, U.S., Amanda N. Carr, Michael P. Milleson, Felipe A. Hernandez, Hunter R. Merrill, Michael L. Avery, and Samantha M. Wisely

Isolation of Rabies Virus from the Salivary Glands of Wild and Domestic Carnivores during a Skunk Rabies Epizootic, Cornell University Jimenez, Terry R. Spraker, Jessica Anderson, Richard Bowen, and Amy Gilbert

Behavioral flexibility of a generalist carnivore, Sarah E. Daniels, Rachel E. Fanelli, Amy Gilbert, and Sarah Sarah Benson‑Amram

Effects of Repeated Sublethal External Exposure to Deep Water Horizon Oil on the Avian Metabolome, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Fariba M. Assadi-Porter, Ebru Selin Selen, Katherine A. Healy, and Katherine E. Horak

Feral swine harming insular sea turtle reproduction: The origin, impacts, behavior and elimination of an invasive species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. McAlister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, and Noel Myers

Invasive feral swine damage to globally imperiled steephead ravine habitats and influences from changes in population control effort, climate, and land use, Richard M. Engeman, Erica Laine, John Allen, Jeremy Preston, William Pizzolato, Brett Williams, Amanda Stevens Kreider, and Dennis Teague

Locating and eliminating feral swine from a large area of fragmented mixed forest and agriculture habitats in north-central USA, Richard M. Engeman, Bradley E. Wilson, Scott F. Beckerman, Justin W. Fischer, Doug Dufford, and James Bryan Cobban

Discovery and Characterization of Bukakata orbivirus (Reoviridae:Orbivirus), a Novel Virus from a Ugandan Bat, Anna C. Fagre, Justin S. Lee, Robert M. Kityo, Nicholas A. Bergren, Eric C. Mossel, Teddy Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Amy Gilbert, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Mary B. Crabtree, Jonathan S. Towner, Brian R. Amman, Tara K. Sealy, Amy J. Schuh, Stuart T. Nichol, Julius J. Lutwama, Barry R. Miller, and Rebekah C. Kading

American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) Growth, Nutrition and Immunology, Treena L. Ferguson, Brian J. Rude, and D. Tommy King

Injury Scores and Spatial Responses of Wolves Following Capture: Cable Restraints Versus Foothold Traps, Eric M. Gese, Patricia A. Terletzky, John D. Erb, Kevin C. Fuller, Jeffery P. Grabarkewitz, John P. Hart, Carolin Humpal, Barry A. Sampson, and Julie K. Young

Determination of residue levels of the avicide 3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, David A. Goldade, Kirsten R. Kim, James C. Carlson, and Steven F. Volker

Assessing public support for restrictions on transport of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in the United States, Meredith J. Grady, Erin E. Harper, Keith M. Carlisle, Karina H. Ernst, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Taking the bait: Species taking oral rabies vaccine baits intended for raccoons, Betsy S. Haley, Are R. Berentsen, and Richard M. Engeman

Taking the bait: species taking oral rabies vaccine baits intended for raccoons, Betsy S. Haley, Are R. Berentsen, and Richard M. Engeman

Cause‐specific mortality of the world’s terrestrial vertebrates, Jacob E. Hill, Travis L. DeVault, and Jerrold L. Belant

Forage or Biofuel: Assessing Native Warm-season Grass Production among Seed Mixes and Harvest Frequencies within a Wildlife Conservation Framework, Raymond B. Iglay, Tara J. Conkling, Travis L. DeVault, Jerrold L. Belant, and James A. Martin

Group effects of a non-native plant invasion on rodent abundance, Bryan M. Kluever, Trinity N. Smith, and Eric M. Gese

Macroeconomic impact of foot‐and‐mouth disease vaccination strategies for an outbreak in the Midwestern United States: A computable general equilibrium, Maryfrances Miller, Lirong Liu, Steven Shwiff, and Stephanie Shwiff

RACCOON (PROCYON LOTOR) RESPONSE TO ONTARIO RABIES VACCINE BAITS (ONRAB) IN ST. LAWRENCE COUNTY, NEW YORK, USA, Kerri Pedersen, Amy T. Gilbert, Kathleen M. Nelson, Daniel P. Morgan, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Dennis Slate, and Richard B. Chipman

The effect of high density oral rabies vaccine baiting on rabies virus neutralizing antibody response in raccoons (Procyon lotor), Kerri Pedersen, Amy Gilbert, Eric S. Wilhelm, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Jordona D. Kirby, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Shylo Johnson, and Richard B. Chipman

The conundrum of agenda-driven science in conservation, M. Zachariah Peery, Gavin M. Jones, R. J. Gutierrez, Steve M. Redpath, Alan B. Franklin, Daniel Simberloff, Monica G. Turner, Volker C. Radeloff, and Gary C. White

Accounting for heterogeneous invasion rates reveals management impacts on the spatial expansion of an invasive species, Kim M. Pepin, David W. Wolfson, Ryan S. Miller, Michael A. Tabak, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Amy J. Davis

What Are the Transmission Mechanisms of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Mammals?, J. Jeffrey Root

In situ evaluation of an automated aerial bait delivery system for landscape-scale control of invasive brown treesnakes on Guam, Shane Siers, Will Pitt, John Eisemann, Larry Clark, Aaron B. Shiels, C. S. Clark, R. J. Gosnell, and M. C. Messaros

Movement responses inform effectiveness and consequences of baiting wild pigs for population control, Nathan P. Snow and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Machine learning to classify animal species in camera trap images: Applications in ecology, Michael A. Tabak, Mohammad S. Norouzzadeh, David W. Wolfson, Steven J. Sweeney, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Paul A. Di Salvo, Jesse S. Lewis, Michael D. White, Ben Teton, James C. Beasley, Peter E. Schlichting, Raoul K. Boughton, Bethany Wight, Eric S. Newkirk, Jacob S. Ivan, Eric A. Odell, Ryan K. Brook, Paul M. Lukacs, Anna K. Moeller, Elizabeth G. Mandeville, Jeff Clune, and Ryan S. Miller

Estimating economic impact of black bear damage to western conifers at a landscape scale, Jimmy D. Taylor, Kristina N. Kline, and Anita T. Morzillo

Experimental infections of Norway rats with avian‑derived low‑pathogenic influenza A viruses, Kaci K. VanDalen, Nicole M. Nemeth, Nicholas O. Thomas, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Heather J. Sullivan, Alan B. Franklin, and Susan A. Shriner

Evaluation of two unmanned aircraft systems as tools for protecting crops from blackbird damage, Lucas J. Wandrie, Page E. Klug, and Mark E. Clark

Using DNA to Identify the Source of Invasive Mongooses, Herpestes auropunctatus (Carnivora: Herpestidae) Captured on Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands, Darren J. Wostenberg, Matthew W. Hopken, Aaron B. Shiels, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

The past and future roles of competition and habitat in the range-wide occupancy dynamics of Northern Spotted Owls, Charles B. Yackulic, Larissa L. Bailey, Katie M. Dugger, Raymond J. Davis, Alan B. Franklin, Eric D. Forsman, Steven H. Ackers, Lawrence S. Andrews, Lowell V. Diller, Scott A. Gremel, Keith A. Hamm, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Rob B. Horn, Christopher McCafferty, Janice A. Reid, Jeremy T. Rockweit, and Stan G. Sovern

Mind the Gap: Experimental Tests to Improve Efficacy of Fladry for Nonlethal Management of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, John Draper, and Stewart Breck

Persistence and conspecific observations improve problem-solving abilities of coyotes, Julie K. Young, Laura Touzot, and Stacey P. Brummer

Allowable Take of Black Vultures in the Eastern United States, Guthrie Zimmerman, Brian A. Millsap, Michael L. Avery, John R. Sauer, Michael C. Runge, and Kenneth D. Richkus


Identifying individual cougars (Puma concolor) in remote camera images – implications for population estimates, Peter D. Alexander and Eric M. Gese

Environmental effects are stronger than human effects on mammalian predator-prey relationships in arid Australian ecosystems, Benjamin L. Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M. Engeman, Allan Lisle, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Absence of native flower visitors for the endangered Hawaiian mint Stenogyne angustifolia: Impending ecological extinction?, Clare E. Aslan, Christina T. Liang, Aaron B. Shiels, and William Haines

Operationalizing resilience for conservation objectives: the 4S’s, Clare E. Aslan, Brian Petersen, Aaron B. Shiels, William Haines, and Christina T. Lang

Monk and Rose-Ringed Parakeets, Michael L. Avery and Aaron B. Shiels

Reimmunization increases contraceptive effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine (GonaCon-Equine) in freeranging horses (Equus caballus): Limitations and side effects, Dan L. Baker, Jenny G. Powers, Jason I. Ransom, Blake E. McCann, Michael W. Oehler, Jason E. Bruemmer, Nathan L. Galloway, Douglas C. Eckery, and Terry M. Nett

Comparison of mixing methods and associated residual levels of zinc phosphide on cabbage bait for rodent management, Roger A. Baldwin, Benjamin G. Abbo, and David A. Goldade

The elusive search for an effective repellent against voles: an assessment of anthraquinone for citrus crops, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, Gary W. Witmer, and Scott J. Werner

Frogs (Coqui Frogs, Greenhouse Frogs, Cuban Tree Frogs, and Cane Toads), Karen H. Beard, Steve A. Johnson, and Aaron B. Shiels

Research Priorities for Managing Invasive Wild Pigs in North America, James C. Beasley, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, John J. Mayer, Mark D. Smith, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Livestock abundance predicts vampire bat demography, immune profiles and bacterial infection risk, Daniel J. Becker, Gábor Á. Czirják, Dmitriy V. Volokhov, Alexandra B. Bentz, Jorge E. Carrera, Melinda S. Camus, Kristen J. Navara, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, M. Brock Fenton, Nancy B. Simmons, Sergio E. Recuenco, Amy T. Gilbert, Sonia Altizer, and Daniel G. Streicker

BOOK REVIEW, Are R. Berentsen

Seroconversion of Raccoons Following Two Oral Rabies Vaccination Baiting Strategies, Are R. Berentsen, Erin M. Patrick, Chad Blass, Keith Wehner, Brett Dunlap, Bradley Hicks, Robert Hale, Richard B. Chipman, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Ecology of the Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in North America, Are R. R. Berentsen, William C. Pitt, and Robert T. Sugihara

Is Razor-wire an Effective Deterrent for Birds Perching on Security Fences at Airports?, David L. Bergman and Brian E. Washburn

European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) reproduction undeterred by predator scent inside nest boxes, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, and Bruce N. Buckingham

Management of Wintering Short-eared Owls at Airports in the Lower Great Lakes Region, Aaron Bowden, Robert J. Hromack, Christopher H. Loftis, and Brian E. Washburn

A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks, Vienna R. Brown and Sarah N. Bevins

A Review of Classical Swine Fever virus and Routes of introduction into the United States and the Potential for virus establishment, Vienna R. Brown and Sarah N. Bevins

Resource partitioning between kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) and coyotes (Canis latrans): a comparison of historical and contemporary dietary overlap, P. A. Byerly, R. C. Lonsinger, E. M. Gese, A. J. Kozlowski, and L. P. Waits

Prophage induction reduces Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella enterica on tomatoes and spinach: A model study, Brigitte Cadieux, Anna Colavecchio, Julie Jeukens, Luca Freschi, Jean-Guillaume Emond-Rheault, Irena Kukavica-Ibrulj, Roger C. Levesque, Sakjia Bekal, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Shannon M. Coleman, Bledar Bisha, and Lawrence D. Goodridge

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by red-winged blackbirds and projected impacts on dairy cow performance, James C. Carlson, Randal S. Stahl, John J. Wagner, Terry E. Engle, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Dustin A. Reid, and Scott J. Werner

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage, James C. Carlson, R. S. Stahl, S. T. DeLiberto, J. J. Wagner, T. E. Engle, R. M. Engeman, C. S. Olson, J. W. Ellis, and S. J. Werner

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage, James C. Carlson, R. S. Stahl, S. T. DeLiberto, J. J. Wagner, T. E. Engle, R. M. Engeman, C. S. Olson, J. W. Ellis, and S. J. Werner

Short communication: A countrywide survey of antimicrobialresistant indicator bacteria in Kosovo’s dairy farms, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Sulaiman F. Aljasir, Afrim Hamidi, Driton Sylejmani, Kenneth G. Gerow, and Bledar Bisha

Plumage Changes in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) Within the Breeding Season: the Risks of Aging by Plumage, Jennifer E. Chastant and D. Tommy King

Brown Tree Snakes Methods and Approaches for Control, Larry Clark, Craig S. Clark, and Shane Siers

Impacts of biomass production at civil airports on grassland bird conservation and aviation strike risk, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and James A. Martin

Using Off-the-Shelf Technologies to Mass Manufacture Oral Vaccine Baits for Wildlife, Lucila M. Corro, Daniel W. Tripp, Scott A. Stelting, and Michael W. Miller

Potential of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), and Wood Storks (Mycteria americana) to Transmit a Hypervirulent Strain of Aeromonas hydrophila between Channel Catfish Culture Ponds, Fred L. Cunningham, Madison M. Jubirt, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Lorelei Ford, Paul Fioranelli, and Larry A. Hanson

Costs and effectiveness of damage management of an overabundant species (Sus scrofa) using aerial gunning, Amy J. Davis, Bruce Leland, Michael Bodenchuk, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Kim M. Pepin

Quantifying site-level usage and certainty of absence for an invasive species through occupancy analysis of camera-trap data, Amy J. Davis, Ryan McCreary, Jeremiah Psiropoulos, Gary Brennan, Terry Cox, Andrew Partin, and Kim M. Pepin

Accounting for observation processes across multiple levels of uncertainty improves inference of species distributions and guides adaptive sampling of environmental DNA, Amy J. Davis, Kelly E. Williams, Nathan P. Snow, Kim M. Pepin, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Effects of immunization against bone morphogenetic protein-15 and growth differentiation factor-9 on ovarian function in mares, Kelli A. Davis, Kristin M. Klohonatz, Darcy S.O. Mora, Hannah M. Twenter, Peter E. Graham, Pablo Pinedo, Douglas C. Eckery, and Jason E. Bruemmer

Efficacy of repellent-treated structural barriers for Richardson’s ground squirrels (Urocitellus richardsonii (Sabine)) and house mice (Mus musculus L.), Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, and Scott J. Werner

Black - billed Magpie Agonistic Mobbing Attack on a Bullsnake, James J. DeLutes III and Richard M. Engeman

PITUOPHIS CATENIFER SAYI (Bullsnake). AGONISTIC MOBBING ATTACK., James J. Delutes III and Richard M. Engeman

How Behavior of Nontarget Species Affects Perceived Accuracy of Scat Detection Dog Surveys, Karen E. DeMatteo, Linsey W. Blake, Julie K. Young, and Barbara Davenport

Estimating Interspecific Economic Risk of Bird Strikes With Aircraft, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Michael J. Begier, Jason D. Kougher, Jenny E. Washburn, Phyllis R. Miller, and Richard A. Dolbeer

Individual variation in avian avoidance behaviours in response to repeated, simulated vehicle approach, Travis L. DeVault, T. W. Seamans, B. F. Blackwell, S. L. Lima, and E. Fernandez-Juricic

Persistence of maternal antibodies to influenza A virus among captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), Katherine L. Dirsmith, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Heather J. Sullivan, Andrea B. Liebowitz, Lauren H. Petersen, Hailey E. McLean, and Susan A. Shriner

Evaluating Blackbird Behavioral Response Toward Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs): Exploiting Antipredator Behavior to Enhance Avoidance, Conor C. Egan, Lucas Wandrie, Bradley F. Blackwell, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, and Page E. Klug

Chapter 11 An International Perspective on the Regulation of Rodenticides, John D. Eisemann, Penny M. Fisher, Alan Buckle, and Simon Humphrys

Towards canine rabies elimination: Economic comparisons of three project sites, J. L. Elser, B. G. Hatch, L. H. Taylor, L. H. Nel, and S. A. Shwiff

Common Ravens Conditioned to a Nutritious Seasonal Aquatic Food Source in Rocky Mountain National Park, Richard M. Engeman

Diverse examples from managing invasive vertebrate species on inhabited islands of the United States, Richard M. Engeman, Michael L. Avery, Aaron B. Shiels, Are R. Berentsen, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Robert T. Sugihara, Anthony G. Duffiney, Craig S. Clark, and John D. Eisemann

Objectives and integrated approaches for the control of brown tree snakes: An updated overview, Richard M. Engeman, Aaron B. Shiels, and Craig S. Clark

Prevalence and amount of feral swine damage to three row crops at planting, Richard M. Engeman, Jason Terry, Leif R. Stephens, and Kenneth S. Gruver

Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States, Lucas Ferguson, Kaijian Luo, Alicia K. Olivier, Fred L. Cunningham, Sherry Blackmon, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Hailiang Sun, John Baroch, Mark W. Lutman, Bianca Quade, William Epperson, Richard Webby, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Species With Greater Aerial Maneuverability Have Higher Frequency of Collisions With Aircraft: A Comparative Study, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, James Brand, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, and Travis L. DeVault

Effectiveness of GonaCon as an immunocontraceptive in colony-housed cats, Amy Fischer, Valerie A.W. Benka, Joyce R. Briggs, Marc-Antoine Driancourt, Joanne Maki, Darcy S.O. Mora, Kevin N. Morris, Kayla A. Myers, Linda Rhodes, Lindsey M. Vansandt, George Robert Weedon, Julie Wolf, and Julie K. Levy

Predicting the initial spread of novel Asian origin influenza A viruses in the continental USA by wild waterfowl, Alan. B. Franklin, Sarah N. Bevins, Jeremy W. Ellis, Ryan S. Miller, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root, Daniel P. Walsh, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Grass is not always greener: rodenticide exposure of a threatened species near marijuana growing operations, Alan B. Franklin, Peter C. Carlson, Angela Rex, Jeremy T. Rockwelt, David Garza, Emily Culhane, Steven F. Volker, Robert J. Dusek, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Mourad W. Gabriel, and Katherine E. Horak

Accounting for location uncertainty in azimuthal telemetry data improves ecological inference, Brian D. Gerber, Mevin B. Hooten, Christopher P. Peck, Mindy B. Rice, James H. Gammonley, Anthony D. Apa, and Amy J. Davis

Sharing an environment with sick conspecifics alters odors of healthy animals, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Maryanne Opiekun, Talia Martin, Gary K. Beauchamp, and Bruce A. Kimball