National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."

1998

STATUS OF APHIS VERTEBRATE PESTICIDES AND DRUGS, Kathleen A. Fagerstone and Edward W. Schafer Jr.

Determination of Zinc Phosphide Residues in Corn (Zea mays) Grain, Fodder, and Forage, M. J. Goodall, S. A. Volz, J. J. Johnston, D. B. Hurlbut, R. E. Mauldin, D. L. Griffin, and E. E. Petty

COMPARATIVE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN CHICKENS, AMERICAN KESTRELS, AND COMMON TERNS, David J. Hoffman, Mark J. Melancon, Patrice N. Klein, John D. Eisemann, and James W. Spann

Development of an Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management (html.www.ianr.unl/wildlife), Scott E. Hygnstrom, Robert H. Schmidt, Paul D. Curtis, and Greg K. Yarrow

CHEMICALLY MEDIATED FORAGING PREFERENCE OF BLACK BEARS ( URSUS AMERICANUS), Bruce A. Kimball, Dale L. Nolte, Richard M. Engeman, John J. Johnston, and Frank R. Stermitz

Effects of Thinning and Nitrogen Fertilization on Sugars and Terpenes in Douglas-Fir Vascular Tissues: Implications for Black Bear Foraging, Bruce A. Kimball, Eric C. Turnblom, Dale L. Nolte, Doreen L. Griffin, and Richard M. Engeman

Observations of Nocturnal Foraging in the Double-crested Cormorant, D. Tommy King, J. Brent Harrel, Brian Dorr, and David Reinhold

Two Capture Techniques For American White Pelicans and Great Blue Herons, D. Tommy King, John D. Paulson, Dwight J. LeBlanc, and Kevin Bruce

TRACING THE HISTORY OF BLACKBIRD RESEARCH THROUGH AN INDUSTRY'S LOOKING GLASS: THE SUNFLOWER MAGAZINE, George M. Linz and H. Jeffrey Homan

MAMMAL REPELLENTS: OPTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT, J. Russell Mason

EVALUATION OF ACROLEIN AS A FUMIGANT FOR CONTROLLING NORTHERN POCKET GOPHERS, George H. Matschke, Geraldine R. McCann, and Rebecca A. Doane

THE IMPACT OF TIMBER MANAGEMENT ON THE PHYTOCHEMICALS ASSOCIATED WITH BLACK BEAR DAMAGE, Dale L. Nolte, Bruce A. Kimball, and Georg J. Ziegltrum

MANAGING ISLAND BIOTAS: BROWN TREESNAKE CONTROL USING BARRIER TECHNOLOGY, Gad Perry, Earl W. Campbell III, Gordon H. Rodda, and Thomas H. Fritts

MANAGING ISLAND BIOTAS: BROWN TREESNAKE CONTROL USING BARRIER TECHNOLOGY, Gad Perry, Earl W. Campbell III, Gordon H. Rodda, and Thomas H. Fritts

COMPARISON OF WHITE MINERAL OIL AND CORN OIL TO REDUCE HATCHABILITY IN RING-BILLED GULL EGGS, Patrica A. Pochop, John L. Cummings, Christi A. Yoder, and John E. Steuber

EFFECTS OF TASTE STIMULI (QUININE AND SUCROSE) IN PELLETED GRANULATED, AND WAX BLOCK BAITS ON FEEDING PREFERENCES OF NORTHERN POCKET GOPHERS (THOMOMYS TALPOIDES), Stephen A. Schumake and Geraldine R. McCann

THE BAIT SURCHARGE PROGRAM: RESEARCH IMPROVES ZINC PHOSPHIDE USE FOR VOLE CONTROL IN ALFALFA, Ray T. Sterner

Zinc Phosphide Residues in Gray-Tailed Voles (Microtus canicaudus) Fed Fixed Particles of a 2% Grain Bait, R. T. Sterner, D. A. Goldade, and R. E. Mauldin

THE USE OF AEROSOL REPELLENTS AS AN AVIAN DETERRENT STRATEGY, Gwen R. Stevens, Larry Clark, and Richard A. Weber

RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT OF BIRD DEPREDATIONS AT CATFISH FARMS, Mark E. Tobin

Epidemic Leptospirosis Associated with Pulmonary Hemorrhage—Nicaragua, 1995, Rosalie T. Trevejo, José G. Rigau-Pérez, David A. Ashford, Emily M. McClure, Carlos Jarquín-González, Juan J. Amador, José O. de los Reyes, Alcides Gonzalez, Sherif R. Zaki, Wun-Ju Shieh, Robert G. McLean, Roger S. Nasci, Robbin S. Weyant, Carole A. Bolin, Sandra L. Bragg, Bradley A. Perkins, and Richard A. Spiegel

RAT MANAGEMENT FOR ENDANGERED SPECIES PROTECTION IN THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, Gary W. Witmer, Earl W. Campbell III, and Frank Boyd

PORCUPINE DAMAGE AND REPELLENT RESEARCH IN THE INTERIOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST, Gary W. Witmer and Michael J. Pipas

DEER ON AIRPORTS: AN ACCIDENT WAITING TO HAPPEN, Sandra E. Wright, Richard A. Dolbeer, and Andrew J. Montoney

1997

Assessing the Hazard to Granivorous Birds Feeding on Chemically Treated Seeds, Michael L. Avery, David L. Fischer, and Thomas M. Primus

Comparison of Three Formulations of Alphachloralose For Immobilization of Canada Geese, Jerrold L. Belant and Thomas W. Seamans

Aerial Photography Techniques to Estimate Populations of Laughing Gull Nests in Jamaica Bay, New York, 1992-1995, Richard A. Dolbeer, Jerrold L. Belant, and Glen E. Bernhardt

Estimating Survival of Song Bird Carcasses In Crops and Woodlots, George M. Linz, David L. Bergman, and William J. Bleier

Solid-Phase Extraction Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Wildlife Urine, E. E. Petty, J . J . Johnston, and S.A. Volz

CYTOCHROME P450 AND ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERONS FROM THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION, USA, Barnett A. Rattner, Mark J. Melancon, Clifford P. Rice, Walter Riley Jr., John D. Eisemann, and Randy K. Hines

Carrion Seeking in Brown Tree Snakes: Importance of Olfactory and Visual Cues, John A. Shivik and Larry Clark

The Problem With Voles, Kim Wagner

Compensation Programs for Wildlife Damage in North America, Kimberly K. Wagner, Robert H. Schmidt, and Michael R. Conover

1996

Age Classification of Laughing Gulls Based on Summer Plumage, Jerrold L. Belant and Richard A. Dolbeer

Evaluation of propane exploders as white-tailed deer deterrents, J. L. Belant, T. W. Seamans, and C.P. Dwyer

Distribution and Abundance of Roof-Nesting Gulls in the Great Lakes Region of the United States, Chris P. Dwyer, Jerrod L. Belant, and Richard A. Dolbeer

LONGEVITY OF WOODHOUSE'S TOAD IN COLORADO, Richard M. Engeman and E. Marie Engeman

A Comparison of Gross Pathology, Histopathology, and Mycobacterial Culture for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Elk(Cervus elaphus), Elizabeth B. Rohonczy, Arumuga V. Balachandran, Thomas W. Dukes, Janet B. Payeur, Jack C. Rhyan, Dennis A. Saari, Terry L. Whiting, Susan H. Wilson, and Jerald L. Jarnagin

1995

BLACK BEAR DAMAGE TO LODGEPOLE PINE IN CENTRAL OREGON, Victor G. Barnes Jr. and Richard M. Engeman

Abundance of Gulls and Other Birds at Landfills in Northern Ohio, Jerrold L. Belant, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven W. Gabrey, and Richard A. Dolbeer

American Woodock Use of a Nest Box, David L. Bergman and Joel M. Bergman

Feeding Responses to Predator-Based Repellents in the Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia rufa), Gisela Epple, J. Russell Mason, Evgueny Aronov, Dale L. Nolte, Richard Hartz, Ron Kaloostian, Dan Campbell, and Amos Smith III

Foraging Behaviors of Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Yellow-crowned Night-Herons (Nyctanassa violacea) in South Louisiana, D. Tommy King and Dwight LeBlanc

Birds Associated with Blackbird Spring Feeding Sites in South Dakota, George M. Linz, David L. Bergman, and William J. Bleier

1994

Identification and Assessment of Wildlife Damage: an Overview, Richard A. Dolbeer, Nicholas R. Holler, and Donald W. Hawthorne

A COMPARISON OF PLOTLESS DENSITY ESTIMATORS USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION, Richard M. Engeman, Robert T. Sugihara, Larry F. Pank, and William E. Dusenberry

Dietary Comparisons of Adult Male Common Grackles, Red-winged Blackbirds, and Yellow-headed Blackbirds in North Central North Dakota, H. Jeffrey Homan, George M. Linz, William J. Bleier, and Robert B. Carlson

Tolerance of Bitter Compounds by an Herbivore, Cavia Porcellus, Dale L. Nolte, J. Russell Mason, and Stanley Lewis

1993

MIGRATION AND DISPERSAL OF LAUGHING GULLS IN THE UNITED STATES, Jerrold L. Belant and Richard A. Dolbeer

Methyl Anduanilate Formulations to Repel Birds from Water at Airports and Food at Landfills, Richard A. Dolbeer, Jerrold L. Belant, and Larry Clark

Short Courses as Part of Statistical Consulting in a Foreign Setting, Richard M. Engeman

Animal Welfare and the Statistical Consultant, Richard M. Engeman and Stephen A. Shumake

Effects of Predator Odors on Feeding in the Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia rufa), Gisela Epple, J. Russell Mason, Dale L. Nolte, and Dan L. Campbell

Diversity: How to Lie with Biodiversity, Gordon H. Rodda

Toward Conservation of Midcontinental Shorebird Migrations, Susan K. Skagen and Fritz L. Knopf

1991

MIGRATION PATTERNS OF DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANTS EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS, Richard A. Dolbeer

1990

Alternatives to Fisher's "Exact Test" for Analyzing 2 X 2 Tables with Small Cell Sizes, Richard M. Engeman

BOREAL TOAD IN CLEAR CREEK COUNTY, COLORADO, Richard M. Engeman and Robert W. Connell

DISAPPEARANCE AND RECOVERABILITY OF SONGBIRD CARCASSES IN FRUIT ORCHARDS, Mark E. Tobin and Richard A. Dolbeer

1989

Biochemical and Morphological Characteristics in Maturing Achenes from Purple-Hulled and Oilseed Sunflower Cultivars, Roger W. Bullard, Paul P. Woronecki, Richard A. Dolbeer, and J. Russell Mason

Herring Gulls, Larus argentatus, Nesting on Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, 1989, Richard A. Dolbeer, P.P. Woronecki, T. W. Seamans, B. N. Buckingham, and E. C. Cleary

THE USE OF BANDING RECOVERY DATA TO ESTIMATE DISPERSAL RATES AND GENE FLOW IN AVIAN SPECIES: CASE STUDIES IN THE RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD AND COMMON GRACKLE , William S. Moore and Richard A. Dolbeer

1988

MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT BAT AND RAT POPULATIONS IN THE MALDIVE ISLANDS, INDIAN OCEAN, Richard R. Dolbeer, Lynwood R. Fiedler, and Hussain Rasheed

Expected Mean Squares on MS-DOS, Richard M. Engeman and Amber D. Lusk

Nonparametric Comparison of Exponential Growth Curves, Russel S. Rickard, Richard M. Engeman, and Gary O. Zerbe

1987

Blackbird and Starling Feeding Behavior on Ripening Corn Ears, Glen E. Bernhardt, Lynda Van Allsbur, and Richard A. Dolbeer

1985

HABITAT SUITABILITY INDEX MODELS: SNOWSHOE HARE, R.G. Carreker

SEX-SPECIFIC FEEDING HABITS OF BROWN-HEADED COWBIRDS IN NORTHERN OHIO IN JANUARY, Richard A. Dolbeer and Cynthia R. Smith

1984

Statistical Consulting in a Geographically Dispersed Organization, Richard M. Engeman and William E. Dusenberry

1983

SURVIVAL ANALYSIS FOR A RED SQUIRREL POPULATION, Curtis H. Halvorson and Richard M. Engeman

SERUM CONCENTRATIONS OF PITUITARY AND ADRENAL HORMONES IN FEMALE PIGS EXPOSED TO TWO PHOTOPERIODS, Robert R. Kraeling, George B. Rampacek, John W. Mabry, Fred L. Cunningham, and Carl A. Pinkert

1982

MIGRATION PATTERNS FOR AGE AND SEX CLASSES OF BLACKBIRDS AND STARLINGS, Richard A. Dolbeer

Expected Mean Squares, Richard M. Engeman

THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIALLY EXTENDED PHOTOPERIOD DURING LACTATION ON MATERNAL PERFORMANCE OF THE SOW, John W. Mabry, Fred L. Cunningham, Robert R. Kraeling, and George B. Rampacek

In Search of a Diversity Ethic For Wildlife Managemen, Fred B. Samson and Fritz L. Knopf

1980

Blackbirds and Corn in Ohio, Richard A. Dolbeer

Mustela nigripes, Conrad N. Hillman and Tim W. Clark

COMPENSATORY RESPONSE OF MATURING CORN KERNELS FOLLOWING SIMULATED DAMAGE BY BIRDS, Paul P. WORONECKI, Robert A. Stehn, and Richard A. Dolbeer

1979

The Challenge of Cost-Benefit Determinations in Bird Damage Control Programs, Richard A. Dolbeer

Hazards to wildlife associated with 1080 baiting for California ground squirrels, Paul L. Hegdal, Thomas A. Gatz, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, James F. Glahn, and George H. Matschke

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LOSSES IN CORN FOLLOWING SIMULATED BIRD DAMAGE, Paul P. Woronecki, Robert H. Stehn, and Richard A. Dolbeer

1978

MOVEMENT AND MIGRATION PATTERNS OF RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS: A CONTINENTAL OVERVIEW, Richard A. Dolbeer

AGRICULTURAL IMPACT OF A WINTER POPULATION OF BLACKBIRDS AND STARLINGS, Richard A. Dolbeer, Paul P. Woronecki, Allen R. Stickley Jr., and Stephen B. White

1976

RESPONSE OF MATURING CORN TO SIMULATED BIRD DAMAGE, Paul P. Woronecki, Charles R. Ingram, and Richard A. Dolbeer

1973

REPRODUCTION IN THE RED SQUIRREL (TAMIASCIURUS HUDSONICUS) IN COLORADO, Richard A. Dolbeer

A FIELD TEST OF METHIOCARB EFFICACY IN REDUCING BIRD DAMAGE TO MICHIGAN BLUEBERRIES, Richard A. Dolbeer, Charles R. Ingram, and Allen R. Stickley Jr.

1970

WINTER BEHAVIOR OF THE EASTERN BOX TURTLE, TERRAPENE C. CAROLINA L., IN EASTERN TENNESSEE, Richard A. Dolbeer

1888

REPORT ON NEBRASKA INSECTS, Lawrence Bruner