National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


The Cumulative Effects of Management on the Population Dynamics of the Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus in the Great Lakes, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, Guiming Wang, and Terry J. Doyle

Genetic analysis of a Bison bison herd derived from the Yellowstone National Park population, Julia A. Herman, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Natalie D. Halbert, Jack C. Rhyan, and M. D. Salman

Surveillance of feral swine for Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasmagondii in the USA and host-related factors associatedwith infection, D. E. Hill, J. P. Dubey, J. A. Baroch, S. R. Swafford, V. F. Fournet, D. Hawkins-Cooper, D. G. Pyburn, B. S. Schmit, H. R. Gamble, K. Pedersen, L. R. Ferreira, S. K. Verma, Y. Ying, O. C. H. Kwok, H. Feidas, and G. Theodoropoulos

The socioecology of Monk Parakeets: Insights into parrot social complexity, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Michael L. Avery, and Timonthy F. Wright

Environmental Contaminant Concentrations in Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) Muscle: Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Human Consumers, Katherine Horak, Richard Chipman, Lisa Murphy, and John Johnston


Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage, 5th Edition, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Robert M. Timm, Paul D. Curtis, Dale L. Nolte, Mark E. Tobin, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluating the Effect of Short-Term Capture and Handling on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite Levels in Mourning Doves, D. S. Jachowski, T. W. Wong, B. E. Washburn, J. H. Schulz, and J. J. Millspaugh

Evaluation of Techniques to Reduce Deer and Elk Damage to Agricultural Crops, Heather E. Johnson, Justin W. Fischer, Matthew Hammond, Patricia D. Dorsey, W. David Walter, Charles Anderson, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Immunization Alters Body Odor, Bruce A. Kimball, Maryanne Opiekun, Kunio Yamazaki, and Gary K. Beauchamp

A Conceptual Model for the Impact of Climate Change on Fox Rabies in Alaska, 1980–2010, B. I. Kim, J. D. Blanton, A. Gilbert, L. Castrodale, K. Hueffer, D. Slate, and C. E. Rupprecht

Coqui frog populations are negatively affected by canopy opening but not detritus deposition following an experimental hurricane in a tropical rainforest, Paul D. Klawinski, Ben Dalton, and Aaron B. Shiels

Efficacy and Health Effects of a Wildlife Immunocontraceptive Vaccine on Fox Squirrels, Sara K. Krause, Douglas A. Kelt, James P. Gionfriddo, and Dirk H. Van Vuren

Regulation of tree squirrel populations with immunocontraception: a fox squirrel example, Sara K. Krause, Douglas A. Kelt, Dirk H. Van Vuren, and James P. Gionfriddo

Mineral licks: motivational factors for visitation and accompanying disease risk at communal use sites of elk and deer, Michael J. Lavelle, Gregory E. Phillips, Justin W. Fischer, Patrick W. Burke, Nathan W. Seward, Randal S. Stahl, Tracy A. Nichols, Bruce A. Wunder, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evolution of Puma Lentivirus in Bobcats (Lynx rufus) and Mountain Lions (Puma concolor) in North America, Justin S. Lee, Sarah N. Bevins, Laurel E. K. Serleys, Winston Vickers, Ken A. Logan, Mat Aldredge, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Roy McBride, Melody Roelke-Parker, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Jennifer L. Troyer, Seth P. Riley, Walter M. Boyce, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Modeling black bear population dynamics in a human-dominated stochastic environment, D. L. Lewis, S. W. Breck, K. R. Wilson, and C. T. Webb

Potential Use of Perennial Sunflower to Reduce Blackbird Damage to Sunflower, George Linz, Brent Hulke, Michael Kantar, Jeffrey Homan, Robert Stupar, and Donald Wyse


Effectiveness of Foliar Applications of 9,10-Anthraquinone for Reducing Blackbird Damage to Sunflower, George Linz, Scott Werner, Megan Niner, and Jeffrey Homan

The evolution of self-control, Evan L. MacLean, Brian Hare, Charles L. Nunn, Elsa Addessi, Federica Amici, Rindy C. Anderson, Filippo Aureli, Joseph M. Baker, Amanda E. Bania, Allison M. Barnard, Neeltje J. Boogert, Elizabeth M. Brannon, Emily E. Bray, Joel Bray, Lauren J. N. Brent, Judith M. Burkart, Josep Call, Jessica F. Cantlon, Lucy G. Cheke, Nicola S. Clayton, Mikel M. Delgado, Louis J. DiVindenti, Kazuo Fujita, Esther Herrmann, Chihiro Hiramatsu, Lucia F. Jacobs, Kerry E. Jordan, Jennifer R. Laude, Kristin L. Leimgruber, Emily J. E. Messer, Antonio C. de A. Moura, Ljerka Ostojic, Alejandra Picard, Michael L. Platt, Joshua M. Plotnik, Friederike Range, Simon M. Reader, Rachna B. Reddy, Aaron A. Sandel, Laurie R. Santos, Katrin Schumann, Amanda M. Seed, Kendra B. Sewall, Rachael C. Shaw, Katie E. Slocombre, Yanjie Su, Ayaka Takimoto, Jingzhi Tan, Ruoting Tao, Carel P. van Schaik, Zsofia Viranyi, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Jordan C. Wade, Arii Watanabe, Janes Widness, Julie K. Young, Thomas R. Zentall, and Yini Zhao

Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans), Salif Mahamane, Kevin L. Grunig, Joseph Baker, Julie K. Young, and Kerry E. Jordan

THE SPRING MIGRATION OF ADULT NORTH AMERICAN OSPREYS, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., Brian E. Washburn, John E. Elliott, Charles J. Henry, Robert S. Kennedy, and Iain MacLeod

Novel Management Methods: Immunocontraception and Other Fertility Control Tools, Giovanna Massei, Dave Cowan, and Douglas Eckery

Mitochondrial Diversity Supports Multiple Origins for Invasive Pigs, Blake E. McCann, Mathew J. Malek, Robert A. Newman, Brandon S. Schmit, Seth R. Swafford, Richard A. Sweitzer, and Rebecca B. Simmons

Movement characteristics of American beavers (Castor canadensis), Lance F. McClintic, Guiming Wang, Jimmy D. Taylor, and Jeanne C. Jones

Effects of spatiotemporal resource heterogeneity on home range size of American beaver, L. F. McClintic, J. D. Taylor, J. C. Jones, R. D. Singleton, and G. Wang

Production of Hybrids Between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes, L. David Mech, Bruce W. Christensen, Cheryl S. Asa, Margaret Callahan, and Julie K. Young

Efficacy of Ropel® as a coyote repellent, Elizabeth A. Miller, Julie K. Young, Scott Stelting, and Bruce A. Kimball

First Reports of Pseudorabies and Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) Associated with an Emerging Feral Swine (Sus scrofa) Population in New Hampshire, Anthony R. Musante, Kerri Pedersen, and Parker Hall

Morphologic and Molecular Identifications of Digenetic Trematodes in Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Mississippi Delta, USA, Mary O'Hear, Linda Pote, Marlena Yost, Cynthia Doffitt, Tommy King, and Carla Panuska

The Scent of Disease: Human Body Odor Contains an Early Chemosensory Cue of Sickness, Mats J. Olsson, Johan N. Lundstrom, Bruce A. Kimball, Amy R. Gordon, Bianka Karshikoff, Nishteman Hosseini, Kimmo Sorjonen, Caroline Olgart Hoglund, Carmen Solares, Anne Soop, John Axelsson, and Mats Lekander

Environmental Salmonella in Agricultural Fair Poultry Exhibits in Colorado, K. L. Pabilonia, K. J. Cadmus, T. M. Lingus, D. S. Bolte, M. M. Russell, D. C. Van Metre, and M. M. Erdman

Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) against Mycobacterium bovis, M. V. Palmer, M. R. Stafne, W. R. Waters, T. C. Thacker, and G. E. Phillips

Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 1 (Newcastle Disease Virus), Avian Influenza Virus, and Salmonella spp. in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the United States, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Dustin M. Arsnoe, Claudio L. Afonso, Sarah N. Bevins, Patti J. Miller, Adam R. Randall, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Short Report: Antibody Prevalence of Select Arboviruses in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the United States, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Dustin M. Arsnoe, Sarah N. Bevins, Eryu Wang, Scott C. Weaver, Randall M. Mickley, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Identification of Brucella suis from Feral Swine in Selected States in the USA, Kerri Pedersen, Christine R. Quance, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Antionette J. Piaggio, Sarah N. Bevins, Samuel M. Goldstein, Wesson D. Gaston, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Using Quantitative Disease Dynamics as a Tool for Guiding Response to Avian Influenza in Poultry in the United States of America, K. M. Pepin, E. Spackman, J. D. Brown, K. L. Pabilonia, L. P. Garber, J. T. Weaver, D. A. Kennedy, K. A. Patyk, K. P. Huyvaert, R. S. Miller, A. B. Franklin, K. Pedersen, T. L. Bogich, P. Rohani, S. A. Shriner, C. T. Webb, and S. Riley

Iophenoxic Acid and Rhodamine B as Biomarkers of Bovine Tuberculosis Vaccine Bait Uptake by White-tailed Deer, Gregory E. Phillips, David A. Goldade, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Troy L. Ott, and Donald C. Wagner

Detecting an Elusive Invasive Species: A Diagnostic PCR to Detect Burmese Python in Florida Waters and an Assessment of Persistence of Environmental DNA, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Richard M. Engeman, Matthew W. Hopken, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, William E. Bruce, and Michael L. Avery

Invasive Vertebrate Species and the Challenges of Management, William C. Pitt and Gary W. Witmer

Potential Citric Acid Exposure and Toxicity to Hawaiian Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Associated with Eleutherodactylus Frog Control, William C. Pitt, Gary W. Witmer, Susan M. Jojola, and Hans Sin

Influence of habitat structure and food on patch choice ofcaptive coyotes, Sharon A. Poessel, Eric M. Gese, and Julie K. Young

Effects of GonaCon Immunocontraceptive Vaccine in Free-Ranging Female Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), Jenny G. Powers, Ryan J. Monello, Margaret A. Wild, Terry R. Spraker, James P. Gionfriddo, Terry M. Nett, and Dan L. Baker

Efficacy of Rodenticides for Roof Rat and Deer Mouse Control in Orchards, Niamh Quinn, David H. Davis, Richard M. Engeman, and Roger A. Baldwin

Toxicokinetics and Coagulopathy Threshold of the Rodenticide Diphacinone in Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Rebecca S. Lazarus, David A. Goldade, and John J. Johnston

Development of Dietary-Based Toxicity Reference Values to Assess the Risk of Chlorophacinone to Non-Target Raptorial Birds, Barnett A. Rattner, Rebecca S. Lazarus, Sandra L. Schultz, Katherine E. Horak, Benjamin G. Abbo, and Steven F. Volker

Ecological Routes of Avian Influenza Virus Transmission to a Common Mesopredator: An Experimental Evaluation of Alternatives, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Susan A. Shriner, Nicole L. Mooers, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Extended Viral Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus by Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis), J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Kevin T. Bentler, Thomas Gidlewski, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Terry R. Spraker, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in a Common Synanthropic Mammal – The Cottontail Rabbit, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Kevin T. Bentler, Thomas Gidlewski, Nicole L. Mooers, Terry R. Spraker, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Using novel spatial mark–resight techniques to monitor resident Canada geese in a suburban environment, M. Elizabeth Rutledge, Rachel Sollmann, Brian E. Washburn, Christopher E. Moorman, and Christopher S. DePerno

Behavioral Traits and Airport Type Affect Mammal Incidents with U.S. Civil Aircraft, Kristin B. Schwarz, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. DeVault, and Guiming Wang

Diffusion of influenza viruses among migratory birds with a focus on the Southwest United States, Matthew Scotch, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Kristy L. Pabilonia, Theodore Anderson, John Baroch, Dennis Kohler, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Using sterilization to change predation rates of wild coyotes:A test case involving pronghorn fawns, Renee G. Seidler, Eric M. Gese, and Mary M. Conner

Parenteral administration of GnRH constructs and adjuvants: Immuneresponses and effects on reproductive tissues of male mice, Sameer Sharma, Ian McDonald, Lowell Martin, and Lyn A. Hinds

Understory fern community structure, growth and spore production responses to a large-scale hurricane experiment in a Puerto Rico rainforest, Joanne M. Sharpe and Aaron B. Shiels

Efficacy of Plastic Mesh Tubes in Reducing Herbivory Damage by the Invasive Nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an Urban Restoration Site, Trevor R. Sheffels, Mark D. Sytsma, Jacoby Carter, and Jimmy D. Taylor

Trait-based plant mortality and preference for native versus non-native seedlings by invasive slug and snail herbivores in Hawaii, Aaron B. Shiels, Martin K. Ennis, and Laura Shiels

Understanding the key mechanisms of tropical forest responses to canopy loss and biomass deposition from experimental hurricane effects, Aaron B. Shiels and Grizelle Gonzalez

Responses to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest ecosystem: Synthesis from an experimental manipulation simulating effects of hurricane disturbance, Aaron B. Shiels, Grizelle González, and Michael R. Willig

A Review of Invasive Rodent (Rattus spp. and Mus musculus) Diets on Pacific Islands, Aaron B. Shiels and William C. Pitt

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 11. Rattus rattus, the Black Rat (Rodentia: Muridae), Aaron B. Shiels, William C. Pitt, Robert T. Sugihara, and Gary W. Witmer

Animal Attendance at M-44 Sodium Cyanide Ejector Sites for Coyotes, John A. Shivik, Lauren Mastro, and Julie K. Young

Spatial Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Cattle in Relation to Night Roosts Of Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) in Ohio, USA (2007–2009), A. L. Swirski, D. L. Pearl, M. L. Williams, H. J. Homan, G. M. Linz, N. Cernicchiaro, and J. T. LeJeune

Evaluating SeaDust Wildlife Controllant™ as a Repellent to Reduce Deer Browse on Douglas-fir Seedlings, Jimmy Taylor

The Evolution of Flow Devices Used to Reduce Flooding by Beavers: A Review, Jimmy D. Taylor and Russell D. Singleton

Estimating the Total Economic Impact of Black Bear Peeling in Western Oregon Using GIS and REMI, Jimmy Taylor, Anita Morzillo, and Aaron Anderson

European starling feeding activity on repellent treated crops and pellets, Shelagh K. Tupper, Scott J. Werner, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, John C. Wise, Catherine A. Lindell, and George M. Linz

Managing California Ground Squirrels on Levees Using Habitat Modification, Dirk Van Vuren, Miguel A. Ordeñana, Michael C. McGrann, and Are R. Berentsen

Use of Dogs in the Mediation of Conservation Conflicts, Kurt VerCauteren, Michael Lavelle, Jean-Marc Landry, Laurie Marker, and Thomas M. Gehring

Rat Density on Diego Garcia: Implications for Eradication Feasibility, Scott Vogt, Daniel S. Vice, William C. Pitt, Antenor Nestor Guzman, Ernesto J. Necessario, and Are R. Berentsen

Right Place, Wrong Species: A 20-Year Review of Rabies Virus Cross Species Transmission among Terrestrial Mammals in the United States, Ryan M. Wallace, Amy Gilbert, Dennis Slate, Richard Chipman, Amber Singh, Cassie Wedd, and Jesse D. Blanton

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis, W. David Walter, Rick Smith, Mike Vanderklok, and Kurt C. VerCauteren


Wildlife Strikes With Military Rotary-Wing Aircraft During Flight Operations Within the United States, Brian E. Washburn, Paul J. Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

WINTERING ECOLOGY OF ADULT NORTH AMERICAN OSPREYS, Brian E. Washburn, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., Charles J. Henny, Brian S. Dorr, and Thomas J. Olexa

Functional Significance of Ultraviolet Feeding Cues in Wild Turkeys, Scott J. Werner, Richard Buchholz, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, and Jeremy W. Ellis

Synergistic effect of an ultraviolet feeding cue for an avianrepellent and protection of agricultural crops, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Susan E. Pettit, and Anna M. Mangan

Perceived impacts of wild turkeys and management techniques for Wisconsin ginseng production, Scott J. Werner, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Julie L. Elser, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Susan E. Pettit, Jason Suckow, Robert C. Willging, Jim A. Tharman, and Joe Heil

Application Strategies for an Anthraquinone-Based Repellent to Protect Oilseed Sunflower Crops from Pest Blackbirds, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, James C. Carlson, David A. Goldade, Nicholas M. Hofmann, H. Jeffrey Homan, and George M. Linz

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa, Brianna M. Williams, Are Berentsen, Barbara C. Shock, Maria Teixiera, Michael R. Dunbar, Matthew S. Becker, and Michael J. Yabsley

New Rodenticides: An Update on Recent Research Trials, Gary Witmer, Katherine Horak, and Rachel Moulton

Improving Invasive House Mice Control and Eradication Strategies via More Effective Rodenticides, Gary Witmer and Rachael S. Moulton

Evaluating Habitat Manipulations and Rodenticides to Protect Seedlings from Rodent Damage at Restored Landfills in New York, Gary W. Witmer

An efficacy test of cholecalciferol plus diphacinone rodenticide baits for California voles (Microtus californicus Peale) to replace ineffective chlorophacinone baits, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael S. Moulton, and Roger A. Baldwin

Invasive Rodent Ecology, Impacts, and Management with an Emphasis on the United States, Gary W. Witmer, William C. Pitt, and Gregg Howald

Responses by wild house mice (Mus musculus) to variousstimuli in a novel environment, Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Responses by wild house mice (Mus musculus) to variousstimuli in a novel environment, Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Seven-year responses of trees to experimental hurricane effects in a tropical rainforest, Puerto Rico, Jess K. Zimmerman, James Aaron Hogan, Aaron B. Shiels, John E. Bithorn, Samuel Matta Carmona, and Nicholas Brokaw


NWRC Annual Publications List – 2013

Intraguild relationships between sympatric predators exposed to lethal control: predator manipulation experiments, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Luke K.-P. Leung

As clear as mud: A critical review of evidence for the ecological roles of Australian dingoes, Benjamin L. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

As clear as mud: A critical review of evidence for the ecological roles of Australian dingoes, Benjamin L.R. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew B. Allison, Dennis J. Kohler, Karen A. Fox, Justin D. Brown, Richard W. Gerhold, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Edward J. Dubovi, Colin R. Parrish, and Edward C. Holmes

Spillover Benefits of Wildlife Management to Support Pheasant Populations, Aaron Anderson, Karen Gerhardt, Wylie T. Cross, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Bird damage to select fruit crops: The cost of damage and the benefits of control in five states, Aaron M. Anderson, C.A. Lindell, Karen M. Moxcey, W.F. Siemer, George M. Linz, P.D. Curtis, J.E. Carroll, C.L. Burrows, Jason R. Boulanger, K.M.M. Steensma, and Stpehanie A. Shwiff

The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents, A. Anderson and S. A. Shwiff

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Appendix, Index and Back Cover, Michael L. Avery, Jerrold L. Belant, Kristin M. Biondi, Bradley F. Blackwell, Jonathon D. Cepek, Larry Clark, Tara J. Conkling, Scott R. Craven, Paul D. Curtis, Travis L. DeVault, Richard A. Dolbeer, David Felstul, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Alan B. Franklin, Sidney A. Gauthreaux Jr., Michael Lavelle, James A. Martin, Rebecca Mihalco, Paige M. Schmidt, Thomas W. Seamans, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Brian E. Washburn

IMMUNOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL RESPONSE OF COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) TO EXPERIMENTAL INOCULATION WITH YERSINIA PESTIS, Laurie A. Baeten, Ryan Pappert, John Young, Martin E. Schriefer, Thomas Gidlewski, Dennis Kohler, and Richard A. Bowen

The influence of trap type and cover status on capture rates of pocket gophers in California, Roger A. Baldwin, Daniel B. Marcum, Steve B. Orloff, Stephen J. Vasquez, Cheryl A. Wilen, and Richard Engeman