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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Chapter 13: Development of a National Early Detection System for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Birds in the United States of America, Thomas J. Deliberto, Seth R. Swafford, and Kyle R. Van Why

Interspecific Variation in Wildlife Hazards to Aircraft: Implications for Airport Wildlife Management, Travis L. DeVault, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Thomas W. Seamans

Mesopredators dominate competition for carrion in an agricultural landscape, Travis L. DeVault, Zachary H. Olson, J. C. Beasley, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Phylogenetic Diversity and Genotypical Complexity of H9N2 Influenza A Viruses Revealed by Genomic Sequence Analysis, Guoying Dong, Jing Luo, Hong Zhang, Chengmin Wang, Mingxing Duan, Thomas Jude Deliberto, Dale Louis Nolte, Guangju Ji, and Hongxuan He

Reassortant H9N2 Influenza Viruses Containing H5N1- Like PB1 Genes Isolated from Black-Billed Magpies in Southern China, Guoying Dong, Cong Xu, Chengmin Wang, Bin Wu, Jing Luo, Hong Zhang, Dale Louis Nolte, Thomas Jude Deliberto, Mingxing Duan, Guangju Ji, and Hongxuan He

Impacts of generalist mesopredators on the demography of small-mammal populations in fragmented landscapes, Timothy S. Eagan II, James C. Beasley, Zachary H. Olson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Registration Considerations For Chemical Bird Repellents In Fruit Crops, John D. Eisemann, Scott J. Werner, and Jeanette R. O’Hare

Making Contact: Rooting Out the Potential for Exposure of Commercial Production Swine Facilities to Feral Swine in North Carolina, Richard Engeman, Carl Betsill, and Tom Ray

An ideal combination for marine turtle conservation: exceptional nesting season, with low nest predation resulting from effective low-cost predator management, Richard Engeman, R. Erik Martin, John Woolard, Margo Stahl, Charles Pelizza, Anthony Duffiney, and Bernice Constantin

Black-footed ferret areas of activity during late summer and fall at Meeteetse, Wyoming, Kathleen A. Fagerstone and Dean E. Biggins

Chapter sixteen: Rodents and other vertebrate invaders in the United States, Michael W. Fall, Michael L. Avery, Tyler A. Campbell, Peter J. Egan, Richard Engeman, David Pimentel, William C. Pitt, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Gary Witmer

Nutrient Utilization and Diet Preference of American White Pelicans Consuming Either a Mono- or Multi-Species Diet, Treena L. Ferguson, Brian J. Rude, and D. Tommy King

Bird strikes and aircraft fuselage color: a correlational study, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Jimmy Gaffney, Bradley F. Blackwelll, and Patrice Baumhardt

Testing the Terrain Hypothesis: Canada Geese See Their World Laterally and Obliquely, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Bret A. Moore, Megan Doppler, Joseph Freeman, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Steven L. Lima, and Travis L. DeVault

Modifying Elk (Cervus elaphus) Behavior With Electric Fencing at Established Fence-Lines to Reduce Disease Transmission Potential, Justin W. Fischer, Gregory E. Phillips, David M. Baasch, Michael J. Lavelle, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Land use and climate influences on waterbirds in the Prairie Potholes, Greg M. Forcey, Wayne E. Thogmartin, George M. Linz, William J. Bleier, and Patrick C. McKann

A review and synthesis of bird and rodent damage estimates to select California crops, Karen Gebhardt, Aaron M. Anderson, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Good fences make good neighbors: implementation of electric fencing for establishing effective livestock-protection dogs, Thomas M. Gehring, K. C. VerCauteren, and Anna C. Cellar

Efficacy of GnRH Immunocontraception of Wild White-Tailed Deer in New Jersey, James P. Gionfriddo, Anthony J. DeNicola, Lowell A. Miller, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Health Effects of GnRH Immunocontraception of Wild White-Tailed Deer in New Jersey, James P. Gionfriddo, Anthony J. DeNicola, Lowell A. Miller, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Assessment of Human-Coyote Conflicts: City and County of Broomfield, Colorado, Stan Grant, Julie Young, and Seth Riley

Chapter nine: Understanding Declines in Rusty Blackbirds, Russell Greenberg, Dean W. Demarest, Steven M. Matsuoka, Claudia Mettke-Hofmann, David Evers, Paul B. Hamel, Jason Luscier, Luke L. Powell, David Shaw, Michael L. Avery, Keith A. Hobson, Peter J. Blancher, and Daniel K. Niven

Hematozoa and a New Haemoproteid Species from Cathartidae (New World Vulture) in South Carolina, Ellis C. Greiner, Alan M. Fedynich, Stephen L. Webb, Travis L. DeVault, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Determinants of local and migratory movements of Great Lakes double-crested cormorants, Alban Guillaumet, Brian Dorr, Guiming Wang, Jimmy D. Taylor, Richard B. Chipman, Heidi Scherr, Jeff Bowman, Kenneth F. Abraham, Terry J. Doyle, and Elizabeth Cranker

Managing an Invasion: Effective Measures To Control Wild Pigs, Bill Hamrick, Tyler Campbell, Billy Higginbotham, and Steven Lapidge

Landscape Genetics of Fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Northeast: Dispersal Barriers and Historical Influences, Paul Hapeman, Emily K. Latch, Jennifer A. Fike, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and C. William Kilpatrick

The Nebraska Deer Exchange: A Novel Program for Donating Harvested Deer, Aaron M. Hildreth, Scott Hygnstrom, Kit M. Hams, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Comparing a Bioenergetics Model With Feeding Rates of Caged European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Randal S. Stahl, and George M. Linz

Assessment of Tannin Variation in Tamarisk Foliage Across a Latitudinal Gradient, Amanda M. Hussey, B. A. Kimball, and Jonathan M. Friedman

Fifteen Years of Urban Deer Management: The Fontenelle Forest Experience, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Gary W. Garabrandt, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Effects of Seasons and Hunting on Space Use by Female White-Tailed Deer in a Developed Landscape in Southeastern Nebraska, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Scott R. Groepper, Gary W. Garabrandt, and Joseph A. Gubanyi

Ameliorating The Effects Of The Digenetic Trematode, Bolbophorus damnificus On The Channel Catfish Industry, Lester Khoo, David J. Wise, Linda M. Pote, Andrew J. Mitchell, Todd S. Byars, Marlena C. Yost, Cynthia M. Doffitt, Brian Dorr, Barbara A. George, D. Tommy King, Terrill R. Hanson, Craig S. Tucker, Terrence E. Greenway, Matthew J. Griffin, Alvin C. Camus, and Carla C. Panuska

Silvicultural Attempts to Induce Browse Resistance in Conifer Seedlings, B. A. Kimball, Fred Pfund, Mark Gourley, Doreen L. Griffin, and John H. Russell

Assessment of Bird Damage to Sunflower and Corn in North Dakota, Megan E. Klosterman, George M. Linz, Tony A. Slowik, and William J. Bleier

Ontogeny of feeding performance and biomechanics in coyotes, S. La Croix, M. L. Zelditch, J. A. Shivik, B. L. Lundrigan, and K. E. Holekamp

Evaluation of Fences for Containing Feral Swine under Simulated Depopulation Conditions, Michael J. Lavelle, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Trevor Hefley, Gregory E. Phillips, Scott Hygnstrom, David B. Long, Justin W. Fischer, Seth R. Swafford, and Tyler Campbell

Long-term fertility control in female cats with GonaCon™, a GnRH immunocontraceptive, Julie K. Levy, John A. Friary, Lowell A. Miller, Sylvia J. Tucker, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Use of glyphosate for managing invasive cattail (Typha spp.) to disperse blackbird (Icteridae) roosts, George M. Linz and H. Jeffrey Homan

Assessment of Bird-management Strategies to Protect Sunflowers, George M. Linz, H. Jeffrey Homan, Scott J. Werner, Heath M. Hagy, and William J. Bleier

Overview of Glyphosate Research for Managing Invasive Cattail to Disperse Blackbird Roosts, George M. Linz, Timothy L. Pugh, and H. Jeffrey Homan

Modeling Parental Provisioning by Red-winged Blackbirds in North Dakota, George M. Linz, Richard S. Sawin, Mark W. Lutman, and William J. Bleier

Wildlife risk to aviation: a multi-scale issue requires a multi-scale solution, James A. Martin, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Loren W. Berger, Samuel K. Riffell, and Guiming Wang

Life History and Ecology of Coyotes in the Mid-Atlantic States: A Summary of the Scientifi c Literature, Lauren L. Mastro

Excluding Nontarget Species from Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), Bait Stations: Experimental Tests of Station Design and Placement, Tom Mathies, Russell Scarpino, Brenna A. Levine, Craig Clark, and Julie A. Savidge

A reassessment of the role of propagule pressure in influencing fates of passerine introductions to New Zealand, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., and Michael L. Avery

Clinical and Pathologic Responses of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and Fish Crows (C ossifragus) to Experimental West Nile Virus Infection, N. M. Nemeth, B. V. Thomsen, T. R. Spraker, J. M. Benson, A. M. Bosco-Lauth, P. T. Oesterle, J. M. Bright, J. P. Muth, T. W. Campbell, T. L. Gidlewski, and R. A. Bowen


Evaluation of Fecal DNA Preservation Techniques and Effects of Sample Age and Diet on Genotyping Success, Michael Panasci, Warren B. Ballard, Stewart Breck, David Rodriguez, Llewellyn D. Densmore III, David B. Wester, and Robert J. Baker

Detection and Characterization of a Distinct Bornavirus Lineage from Healthy Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), Susan Payne, Lina Covaleda, Guo Jianhua, Seth Swafford, John Baroch, Pamela J. Ferro, Blanca Lupiani, J Jill Heatley, and Ian Tizard


Efficacy of Rodenticide Baits for the Control of Three Invasive Rodent Species in Hawaii, William C. Pitt, Laura C. Driscoll, and Robert T. Sugihara

The effect of cooking on diphacinone residues related to human consumption of feral pig tissues, William C. Pitt, Michelle Higashi, and Thomas M. Primus

Physical and behavioural abilities of commensal rodents related to the design of selective rodenticide bait stations, William C. Pitt, Robert T. Sugihara, Laura C. Driscoll, and Daniel S. Vice

Landscape features influence postrelease predation on endangered black-footed ferrets, Sharon A. Poessel, Stewart W. Breck, Dean E. Biggins, Travis M. Livieri, Kevin R. Crooks, and Lisa Angeloni

Acute Toxicity, Histopathology, And Coagulopathy In American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius) Following Administration Of The Rodenticide Diphacinone, Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Sarah E. Warner, Daniel D. Day, Carol U. Meteyer, Steven F. Volker, John Eisemann, and John J. Johnston

A Mark–Recapture Technique for Monitoring Feral Swine Populations, Matthew M. Reidy, Tyler A. Campbell, and David G. Hewitt

Efficacy of ERL-4221 as an ovotoxin for feral pigs (Sus scrofa), Dustin L. Sanders, Fang Xie, Richard E. Mauldin, Jerome C. Hurley, Lowell A. Miller, Michelle R. Garcia, Randy W. DeYoung, David B. Long, and Tyler A. Campbell

Tools for managing invasions: acceptance of non-toxic baits by juvenile Nile monitor lizards and Burmese pythons under laboratory conditions, Peter J. Savarie, Richard Engeman, Richard E. Mauldin, Tom Mathies, and Kenneth L. Tope

Population Estimation and Monitoring of an Endangered Lagomorph, Jason A. Schmidt, Robert A. Mccleery, Paige M. Schmidt, Nova. J. Silvy, and Roel Lopez

Electric shock strips as bird deterrents: does experience count?, Thomas W. Seamans and Bradley F. Blackwelll

Use of overhead wires to deter waterfowl from sewage treatment ponds, Thomas W. Seamans, E. Christopher Willis, and Bradley F. Blackwelll

A Retrospective Economic Analysis of the Ontario Red Fox Oral Rabies Vaccination Programme, S. Shwiff, C. P. Nunan, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, and S. S. Shwiff

Economic evaluation of beaver management to protect timber resources in Mississippi, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, and Kris Casscles Godwin

A field evaluation of a trap for invasive American bullfrogs, Nathan P. Snow and Gary Witmer

Evaluation of Christmas Bird Counts and Landscape Factors as Indicators of Local Blackbird and European Starling Winter Roosts, Matthew Strassburg, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Effects of Management on Double-Crested Cormorant Nesting Colony Fidelity, Bronson K. Strickland, Brian S. Dorr, Fred E. Pogmore, Gary Nohrenberg, Scott C. Barras, John E. Mcconnell, and John Gobeille

Identifying and Managing for Wildlife Damage During Stand Initiation, Jimmy Taylor

Using Fences to Exclude Feral Hogs from Wildlife Feeding Stations, Jared Timmons, Justin Rattan, Tyler A. Campbell, David Long, Billy Higginbotham, Duane Campion, Mark L. McFarland, Nikki Dictson, and James C. Cathey

Evaluation of Sonic Dissuader® to Reduce Damage by Pileated Woodpeckers, Shelagh K. Tupper, John L. Cummings, William F. Andelt, Scott Werner, and Richard Harness

Artificial Nest Cavity Used Successfully by Native Species and Avoided by European Starlings, Laura A. Tyson, Bradley F. Blackwelll, and Thomas W. Seamans

Who hits and hoots at whom? Potential for interference competition between barred and northern spotted owls, Nicholas J. Van Lanen, Alan B. Franklin, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Raoul F. Reiser II, and Peter C. Carlson

Regulated Commercial Harvest to Manage Overabundant White-Tailed Deer: An Idea to Consider?, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Charles W. Anderson, Timothy R. Van Deelen, David Drake, W. David Walter, Stephen Vantassel, and Scott E. Hygnstrom

Diseases and Parasites, Kurt C. Vercauteren and Tyler A. Campbell

Managing White-tailed Deer: Midwest North America, Kurt VerCauteren and Scott E. Hygnstrom

Factors affecting space use overlap by white-tailed deer in an urban landscape, W. David Walter, Jeff Beringer, Lonnie P. Hansen, Justin W. Fischer, Joshua J. Millspaugh, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

What Is the Proper Method to Delineate Home Range of an Animal Using Today’s Advanced GPS Telemetry Systems: The Initial Step, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

PITUOPHIS CATENIFER DESERTICOLA (Great Basin Gophersnake). PREDATION, Steven J. Wamback and Richard Engeman

Wildlife Responses to Long-Term Application of Biosolids to Grasslands in North Carolina, Brian E. Washburn and Michael Begier

Using dietary analyses to reduce the risk of wildlife–aircraft collisions, Brian E. Washburn, Glen E. Bernhardt, and Lisa A. Kutschbach-Brohl

THE NEED TO QUANTIFY ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PROVIDED BY BIRDS, Daniel G. Wenny, Travis L. DeVault, Matthew D. Johnson, Dave Kelly, Cagan H. Sekercioglu, Diana F. Tomback, and Christopher J. Whelan

Anthraquinone-based bird repellent for sunflower crops, Scott J. Werner, George M. Linz, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, Shelagh K. Tupper, and Michele M. Santer

Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents, Scott J. Werner and Frederick D. Provenza

Anthraquinone repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, James C. Carlson, and George M. Linz

Coyote Capture Vulnerability Relative to Space Use and Trap Density, Ryan R. Wilson, Julie K. Young, and John Shivik

Rodent population management at Kansas City International Airport, Gary Witmer

Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories, Gary Witmer and Pam L. Fuller

Attempting to eradicate invasive Gambian giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) in the United States: lessons learned, Gary Witmer and P. Hall

Eradication of invasive rodents on islands of the United States, Gary Witmer, J. Pierce, and William C. Pitt

Feeding of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) with the contraceptive agent DiazaConTM: effect on cholesterol, hematology, and blood chemistry, C. A. Yoder, Brenda A. Mayle, Carol A. Furcolow, David N. Cowan, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Effect of GonaConTM vaccine on black-tailed prairie dogs: Immune response and health effects, C. A. Yoder and Lowell A. Miller

Is Wildlife Going to the Dogs? Impacts of Feral and Free-roaming Dogs on Wildlife Populations, Julie K. Young, Kirk A. Olson, Richard P. Reading, Sukh Amgalanbaatar, and Joel Berger


Importance of resource selection and social behavior to partitioning of hostile space by sympatric canids, Todd Atwood and Eric Gese

Cold weather and the potential range of invasive Burmese pythons, Michael Avery, Richard M. Engeman, Kandy L. Keacher, John S. Humphrey, William E. Bruce, Tom C. Mathies, and Richard E. Mauldin

Resource Selection by Elk in an Agro-Forested Landscape of Northwestern Nebraska, David M. Baasch, Justin W. Fischer, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Andrew J. Tyre, Joshua J. Millspaugh, James W. Merchant, and Jerry D. Volesky

An evaluation of three statistical methods used to model resource selection, David M. Baasch, Andrew J. Tyre, Joshua J. Millspaugh, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Synchronous monitoring of vulture movements with satellite telemetry and avian radar, Robert C. Beason, J. S. Humphrey, N. E. Myers, and Michael L. Avery

Capture of ungulates in Central Asia using drive nets: advantages and pitfalls illustrated by the Endangered Mongolian saiga Saiga tatarica mongolica, Joel Berger, Kim M. Murray, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Mike R. Dunbar, and Badamjav Lkhagvasuren

Temporal Variation in Terrestrial Invertebrate Consumption by Laughing Gulls in New York, Glen E. Bernhardt, Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, Brian E. Washburn, Richard Chipman, and Laura Francoeur

Seroprevalence of equine influenza virus in northeast and southern Mexico, B. J. Blitvich, L. A. Ibarra-Juarez, A. J. Cortes-Guzman, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, and I. Fernandez-Salas

Seroprevalence of equine influenza virus in northeast and southern Mexico, B. J. Blitvitch, L. A. Ibarra-Juarez, A. J. Cortes-Guzman, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, and I. Fernandez-Salas