National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

4101 LaPorte Avenue
Fort Collins, CO 80521
tel: (970) 266-6000 fax: (970) 266-6032

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services: Providing Federal Leadership in Managing Conflicts with Wildlife, Mark E. Tobin

Cow dogs: Use of livestock protection dogs for reducing predation and transmission of pathogens from wildlife to cattle, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, Thomas M. Gehring, and Jean-Marc Landry

Prion Remains Infectious after Passage through Digestive System of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), Kurt C. Vercauteren, John L. Pilon, Paul B. Nash, Gregory E. Phillips, and Justin W. Fischer

Rabies in North America: A Model of the One Health Approach, Kurt Vercauteren, Christine Ellis, Richard Chipman, Thomas Deliberto, Stephanie Shwiff, and Dennis Slate

On-FarmMitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis fromWhite-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations, W. David Walter, Charles W. Anderson, Rick Smith, Mike Vanderklok, James J. Averill, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Evaluation of Remote Delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Technology to Mark Large Mammals, W. David Walter, Charles W. Anderson, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Using three-dimensional flight patterns at airfields to identify hotspots for avian-aircraft collisions, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, John S. Humphrey, Trey S. Daughtery, Michael P. Milleson, Eric A. Tillman, and Michael L. Avery

Using three-dimensional flight patterns at airfields to identify hotspots for avianeaircraft collisions, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, John S. Humphrey, Trey S. Daughtery, Michael P. Milleson, Eric A. Tillman, and Michael L. Avery

Avian use of solid waste transfer stations, Brian E. Washburn

Historical And Current Status Of Laughing Gulls Breeding In New York State, Brian E. Washburn, Martin S. Lowney, and Allen L. Gosser

Foraging Preferences of Canada Geese Among Turfgrasses: Implications for Reducing Human–Goose Conflicts, Brian E. Washburn and Thomas W. Seamans

The role of a generalized ultraviolet cue for blackbird food selection, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, and George M. Linz

Beyond use versus availability: behaviour-explicit resource selection, Ryan R. Wilson, Lynne Gilbert-Norton, and Eric M. Gese

Eradication of Invasive Rodents on Islands of the United States, Gary Witmer

Vertebrate Species Introductions in the United States and its Territories, Gary Witmer and Pam Fuller

Invasive Rodents In The United States: Ecology, Impacts, And Management, Gary Witmer and William C. Pitt

The Introduction, Impacts, And Management of a Large, Invasive, Aquatic Rodent In The United States, Gary Witmer, Trevor R. Sheffels, and Stephen R. Kendrot

An assessment of seedling damage by wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild deer mice (Peromyscus spp.), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton, and Jenna L. Swartz

Movement and Habitat Use of Feral Swine Near Domestic Swine Facilities, A. Christy Wyckoff, Scott E. Henke, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Estimates of Energy and Prey Requirements of Wolverines, Julie K. Young, Brian Hudgens, and David K. Garcelon


Wild Dogma: An Examination Of Recent "Evidence" For Dingo Regulation Of Invasive Mesopredator Release In Australia., Benjamin L. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Lee R. Allen

Wild Dogma II: The Role And Implications Of Wild Dogma For Wild Dog Management In Australia., Benjamin L. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Lee R. Allen

Partitioning Of Anthropogenic Watering Sites By Desert Carnivores., Todd C. Atwood, Tricia L. Fry, and Bruce Leland

Modeling Connectivity of Black Bears in a Desert Sky Island Archipelago, Todd C. Atwood; Julie K. Young; Jon P. Beckmann; Stewart W. Breck; Jennifer A. Fike; Olin Rhodes, Jr.; and Kirby D. Bristow

Hair of the Dog: Obtaining Samples From Coyotes and Wolves Noninvasively, David E. Ausband, Julie Young, Barbara Fannin, Michael S. Mitchell, Jennifer L. Stenglen, Lizette P. Waits, and John A. Shivik

Acetaminophen and Zinc Phosphide For Lethal Management of Invasive Lizards Ctenosaura similis , Michael L. Avery, John Eisemann, Kandy L. Keacher, and Peter J. Savarie

Vulture Flight Behavior and Implications for Aircraft Safety, Michael L. Avery, John S. Humphrey, Trey S. Daughtery, Justin W. Fischer, Michael P. Milleson, Eric A. Tillman, William E. Bruce, and W. David Walter

Persistent Infection or Successive Reinfection of Deer Mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, Ying Bai, Charles H. Calisher, Michael Y. Kosoy, J. Jeffrey Root, and Jeffrey B. Doty

The Carrot Or The Stick? Evaluation Of Education And Enforcement As Management Tools For Human-Wildlife Conflicts., Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Stewart W. Breck, Kenneth R. Wilson, and John Broderick

Active Use of Coyotes (Canis latrans) To Detect Bovine Tuberculosis In Northeastern Michigan, USA, Are R. Berentsen, Michael R. Dunbar, Shylo R. Johnson, S. Robbe-Austerman, L. Martinez, and R. L. Jones

Interface Between Black-footed Ferret Research And Operational Conservation., Dean E. Biggins, Travis M. Livieri, and Stewart W. Breck

White-Tailed Deer Incidents With U.S. Civil Aircraft, Kirsten M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. Devault, and Guiming Wang

Baylisascariasis fact sheet, Emily L. Blizzard

Domestic Calf Mortality And Producer Detection Rates In The Mexican Wolf Recovery Area: Implications For Livestock Management And Carnivore Compensation Schemes., Stewart W. Breck, Bryan M. Kluever, Michael Panasci, John Oakleaf, Terry Johnson, Warren B. Ballard, Larry Howery, and David L. Bergman

Annual Seroprevalence of Yersinia pestis in Coyotes as Predictors of Interannual Variation in Reports of Human Plague Cases in Arizona, United States, Heidi E. Brown, Craig E. Levy, Russell E. Enscore, Martin E. Schriefer, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kenneth L. Gage, and Rebecca J. Eisen

Natal Colony Site Fidelity Of Herring Gulls At Sandusky Bay, Ohio., Bruce N. Buckingham and Benjamin Bacak

The Relative Abundance of Deer Mice with Antibody to Sin Nombre Virus Corresponds to the Occurrence of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Nearby Humans, Charles H. Calisher, James N. Mills, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeffrey B. Doty, and Barry J. Beaty

Absence Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) From The Southern Texas Border Region., Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, Luiz R. Bazan, Bruce V. Thomsen, SueLee Robbe-Austerman, Ronald B. Davey, Liza A. Soliz, Seth Swafford, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Efficacy Of The Boar-Operated-System To Deliver Baits To Feral Swine., Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, and Giovanna Massei

Diseases and Parasites [of White-tailed Deer], Tyler A. Campbell and K. C. VerCauteren

Nilgai Antelope In Northern Mexico As A Possible Carrier For Cattle Fever Ticks And Babesia Bovis And Babesia Bigemina., E M. Cardenas-Canales, J. Alfonso Ortega-Santos, Tyler A. Campbell, Zeferino Garcia-Vaquez, Antonio Cantu-Covarrubias, Julio V. Figueroa-Millian, Randy W. Deyoung, David G. Hewitt, and Fred C. Bryant

Rock Pigeon Use Of Livestock Facilities In Northern Colorado: Implications For Improving Farm Bio-Security., James C. Carlson, Larry Clark, Michael F. Antolin, and M. D. Salman

Efficacy Of European Starling Control To Reduce Salmonella Enterica Contamination In A Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation In The Texas Panhandle, James C. Carlson, Richard M. Engeman, Doreene R. Hyatt, Rickey L. Gilliland, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Larry Clark, Michael J. Bodenchuck, and George M. Linz

The role of starlings in the spread of Salmonella within concentrated animal feeding operations, James C. Carlson, Alan B. Franklin, Doreene R. Hyatt, Susan E. Pettit, and George M. Linz

The role of European starlings in the spread of coccidia within concentrated animal feeding operations, James C. Carlson, George M. Linz, Lora R. Ballweber, Stacey A. Elmore, Susan E. Pettit, and Alan B. Franklin

Movements of White-Tailed Deer in Riparian Habitat: Implications for Infectious Diseases, Gregory M. Clements, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Jason M. Gilsdorf, David M. Baasch, Myndi J. Clements, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Effectiveness of AV-1011® to Reduce Damage to Drill-Planted Rice From Blackbirds, John L. Cummings, Robert W. Byrd, William R. Eddleman, Richard Engeman, and Shelagh K. Tupper

Integrative approaches to disease control: the value of international collaborations, Thomas J. Deliberto, Dale L. Nolte, and William (Bill) H. Clay

Chapter 13: Development of a National Early Detection System for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Birds in the United States of America, Thomas J. Deliberto, Seth R. Swafford, and Kyle R. Van Why

Interspecific Variation in Wildlife Hazards to Aircraft: Implications for Airport Wildlife Management, Travis L. DeVault, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Thomas W. Seamans

Mesopredators dominate competition for carrion in an agricultural landscape, Travis L. DeVault, Zachary H. Olson, J. C. Beasley, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Phylogenetic Diversity and Genotypical Complexity of H9N2 Influenza A Viruses Revealed by Genomic Sequence Analysis, Guoying Dong, Jing Luo, Hong Zhang, Chengmin Wang, Mingxing Duan, Thomas Jude Deliberto, Dale Louis Nolte, Guangju Ji, and Hongxuan He

Reassortant H9N2 Influenza Viruses Containing H5N1- Like PB1 Genes Isolated from Black-Billed Magpies in Southern China, Guoying Dong, Cong Xu, Chengmin Wang, Bin Wu, Jing Luo, Hong Zhang, Dale Louis Nolte, Thomas Jude Deliberto, Mingxing Duan, Guangju Ji, and Hongxuan He

Impacts of generalist mesopredators on the demography of small-mammal populations in fragmented landscapes, Timothy S. Eagan II, James C. Beasley, Zachary H. Olson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Registration Considerations For Chemical Bird Repellents In Fruit Crops, John D. Eisemann, Scott J. Werner, and Jeanette R. O’Hare

Making Contact: Rooting Out the Potential for Exposure of Commercial Production Swine Facilities to Feral Swine in North Carolina, Richard Engeman, Carl Betsill, and Tom Ray

An ideal combination for marine turtle conservation: exceptional nesting season, with low nest predation resulting from effective low-cost predator management, Richard Engeman, R. Erik Martin, John Woolard, Margo Stahl, Charles Pelizza, Anthony Duffiney, and Bernice Constantin

Black-footed ferret areas of activity during late summer and fall at Meeteetse, Wyoming, Kathleen A. Fagerstone and Dean E. Biggins

Chapter sixteen: Rodents and other vertebrate invaders in the United States, Michael W. Fall, Michael L. Avery, Tyler A. Campbell, Peter J. Egan, Richard Engeman, David Pimentel, William C. Pitt, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Gary Witmer

Nutrient Utilization and Diet Preference of American White Pelicans Consuming Either a Mono- or Multi-Species Diet, Treena L. Ferguson, Brian J. Rude, and D. Tommy King

Bird strikes and aircraft fuselage color: a correlational study, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Jimmy Gaffney, Bradley F. Blackwelll, and Patrice Baumhardt

Testing the Terrain Hypothesis: Canada Geese See Their World Laterally and Obliquely, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Bret A. Moore, Megan Doppler, Joseph Freeman, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Steven L. Lima, and Travis L. DeVault

Modifying Elk (Cervus elaphus) Behavior With Electric Fencing at Established Fence-Lines to Reduce Disease Transmission Potential, Justin W. Fischer, Gregory E. Phillips, David M. Baasch, Michael J. Lavelle, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Land use and climate influences on waterbirds in the Prairie Potholes, Greg M. Forcey, Wayne E. Thogmartin, George M. Linz, William J. Bleier, and Patrick C. McKann

A review and synthesis of bird and rodent damage estimates to select California crops, Karen Gebhardt, Aaron M. Anderson, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Good fences make good neighbors: implementation of electric fencing for establishing effective livestock-protection dogs, Thomas M. Gehring, K. C. VerCauteren, and Anna C. Cellar

Efficacy of GnRH Immunocontraception of Wild White-Tailed Deer in New Jersey, James P. Gionfriddo, Anthony J. DeNicola, Lowell A. Miller, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Health Effects of GnRH Immunocontraception of Wild White-Tailed Deer in New Jersey, James P. Gionfriddo, Anthony J. DeNicola, Lowell A. Miller, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Assessment of Human-Coyote Conflicts: City and County of Broomfield, Colorado, Stan Grant, Julie Young, and Seth Riley

Chapter nine: Understanding Declines in Rusty Blackbirds, Russell Greenberg, Dean W. Demarest, Steven M. Matsuoka, Claudia Mettke-Hofmann, David Evers, Paul B. Hamel, Jason Luscier, Luke L. Powell, David Shaw, Michael L. Avery, Keith A. Hobson, Peter J. Blancher, and Daniel K. Niven

Hematozoa and a New Haemoproteid Species from Cathartidae (New World Vulture) in South Carolina, Ellis C. Greiner, Alan M. Fedynich, Stephen L. Webb, Travis L. DeVault, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Determinants of local and migratory movements of Great Lakes double-crested cormorants, Alban Guillaumet, Brian Dorr, Guiming Wang, Jimmy D. Taylor, Richard B. Chipman, Heidi Scherr, Jeff Bowman, Kenneth F. Abraham, Terry J. Doyle, and Elizabeth Cranker

Managing an Invasion: Effective Measures To Control Wild Pigs, Bill Hamrick, Tyler Campbell, Billy Higginbotham, and Steven Lapidge

Landscape Genetics of Fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Northeast: Dispersal Barriers and Historical Influences, Paul Hapeman, Emily K. Latch, Jennifer A. Fike, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and C. William Kilpatrick

The Nebraska Deer Exchange: A Novel Program for Donating Harvested Deer, Aaron M. Hildreth, Scott Hygnstrom, Kit M. Hams, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Comparing a Bioenergetics Model With Feeding Rates of Caged European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Randal S. Stahl, and George M. Linz

Assessment of Tannin Variation in Tamarisk Foliage Across a Latitudinal Gradient, Amanda M. Hussey, B. A. Kimball, and Jonathan M. Friedman

Fifteen Years of Urban Deer Management: The Fontenelle Forest Experience, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Gary W. Garabrandt, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Effects of Seasons and Hunting on Space Use by Female White-Tailed Deer in a Developed Landscape in Southeastern Nebraska, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Scott R. Groepper, Gary W. Garabrandt, and Joseph A. Gubanyi

Ameliorating The Effects Of The Digenetic Trematode, Bolbophorus damnificus On The Channel Catfish Industry, Lester Khoo, David J. Wise, Linda M. Pote, Andrew J. Mitchell, Todd S. Byars, Marlena C. Yost, Cynthia M. Doffitt, Brian Dorr, Barbara A. George, D. Tommy King, Terrill R. Hanson, Craig S. Tucker, Terrence E. Greenway, Matthew J. Griffin, Alvin C. Camus, and Carla C. Panuska

Silvicultural Attempts to Induce Browse Resistance in Conifer Seedlings, B. A. Kimball, Fred Pfund, Mark Gourley, Doreen L. Griffin, and John H. Russell

Assessment of Bird Damage to Sunflower and Corn in North Dakota, Megan E. Klosterman, George M. Linz, Tony A. Slowik, and William J. Bleier

Ontogeny of feeding performance and biomechanics in coyotes, S. La Croix, M. L. Zelditch, J. A. Shivik, B. L. Lundrigan, and K. E. Holekamp

Evaluation of Fences for Containing Feral Swine under Simulated Depopulation Conditions, Michael J. Lavelle, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Trevor Hefley, Gregory E. Phillips, Scott Hygnstrom, David B. Long, Justin W. Fischer, Seth R. Swafford, and Tyler Campbell

Long-term fertility control in female cats with GonaCon™, a GnRH immunocontraceptive, Julie K. Levy, John A. Friary, Lowell A. Miller, Sylvia J. Tucker, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Use of glyphosate for managing invasive cattail (Typha spp.) to disperse blackbird (Icteridae) roosts, George M. Linz and H. Jeffrey Homan

Assessment of Bird-management Strategies to Protect Sunflowers, George M. Linz, H. Jeffrey Homan, Scott J. Werner, Heath M. Hagy, and William J. Bleier

Overview of Glyphosate Research for Managing Invasive Cattail to Disperse Blackbird Roosts, George M. Linz, Timothy L. Pugh, and H. Jeffrey Homan

Modeling Parental Provisioning by Red-winged Blackbirds in North Dakota, George M. Linz, Richard S. Sawin, Mark W. Lutman, and William J. Bleier

Wildlife risk to aviation: a multi-scale issue requires a multi-scale solution, James A. Martin, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Loren W. Berger, Samuel K. Riffell, and Guiming Wang

Life History and Ecology of Coyotes in the Mid-Atlantic States: A Summary of the Scientifi c Literature, Lauren L. Mastro

Excluding Nontarget Species from Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), Bait Stations: Experimental Tests of Station Design and Placement, Tom Mathies, Russell Scarpino, Brenna A. Levine, Craig Clark, and Julie A. Savidge

A reassessment of the role of propagule pressure in influencing fates of passerine introductions to New Zealand, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., and Michael L. Avery

Clinical and Pathologic Responses of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and Fish Crows (C ossifragus) to Experimental West Nile Virus Infection, N. M. Nemeth, B. V. Thomsen, T. R. Spraker, J. M. Benson, A. M. Bosco-Lauth, P. T. Oesterle, J. M. Bright, J. P. Muth, T. W. Campbell, T. L. Gidlewski, and R. A. Bowen


Evaluation of Fecal DNA Preservation Techniques and Effects of Sample Age and Diet on Genotyping Success, Michael Panasci, Warren B. Ballard, Stewart Breck, David Rodriguez, Llewellyn D. Densmore III, David B. Wester, and Robert J. Baker

Detection and Characterization of a Distinct Bornavirus Lineage from Healthy Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), Susan Payne, Lina Covaleda, Guo Jianhua, Seth Swafford, John Baroch, Pamela J. Ferro, Blanca Lupiani, J Jill Heatley, and Ian Tizard


Efficacy of Rodenticide Baits for the Control of Three Invasive Rodent Species in Hawaii, William C. Pitt, Laura C. Driscoll, and Robert T. Sugihara

The effect of cooking on diphacinone residues related to human consumption of feral pig tissues, William C. Pitt, Michelle Higashi, and Thomas M. Primus