The mission of USDA APHIS Wildlife Services (WS) is to provide Federal leadership and expertise to resolve wildlife conflicts to allow people and wildlife to coexist. WS conducts program delivery, research, and other activities through its Regional and State Offices, the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) and its Field Stations, as well as through its National Programs.

This site contains publications of WS or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


The effect of high density oral rabies vaccine baiting on rabies virus neutralizing antibody response in raccoons (Procyon lotor), Kerri Pedersen, Amy Gilbert, Eric S. Wilhelm, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Jordona D. Kirby, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Shylo Johnson, and Richard B. Chipman

The conundrum of agenda-driven science in conservation, M. Zachariah Peery, Gavin M. Jones, R. J. Gutierrez, Steve M. Redpath, Alan B. Franklin, Daniel Simberloff, Monica G. Turner, Volker C. Radeloff, and Gary C. White

Improving risk assessment of the emergence of novel influenza A viruses by incorporating environmental surveillance, Kim M. Pepin, Matthew W. Hopken, Susan A. Shriner, Erica Spackman, Zaid Abdo, Colin Parrish, Steven Steven, James O. Lloyd-Smith, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Individual-Level Antibody Dynamics Reveal Potential Drivers of Influenza A Seasonality in Wild Pig Populations, Kim M. Pepin, Kerri Pedersen, Xiu-Feng Wan, Fred L. Cunningham, Colleen T. Webb, and Mark Q. Wilber

Accounting for heterogeneous invasion rates reveals management impacts on the spatial expansion of an invasive species, Kim M. Pepin, David W. Wolfson, Ryan S. Miller, Michael A. Tabak, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Amy J. Davis

Landscape Factors that Influence European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) Nest Box Occupancy at NASA Plum Brook Station (PBS), Erie County, Ohio, USA, Morgan Pfeiffer, Thomas W. Seamans, Bruce N. Buckingham, and Bradley F. Blackwell

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Bird Harassment on Fish Ponds, Ciera A. Rhoades, Peter J. Allen, and D. Tommy King

Male Burmese pythons follow female scent trails and show sex-specific behaviors, Shannon A. Richard, Eric A. Tillman, John S. Humphrey, Michael L. Avery, and M. Rockwell Parker

What Are the Transmission Mechanisms of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Mammals?, J. Jeffrey Root

An evaluation of the registration and use prospects for four candidate toxicants for controlling invasive mongooses (Herpestes javanicus auropunctatus), Emily W. Ruell, Chris N. Niebuhr, Robert T. Sugihara, and Shane R. Siers

Scavenging in the Anthropocene: Human impact drives vertebrate scavenger species richness at a global scale, Esther Sebastián‐González, Jomar Magalhães Barbosa, Juan M. Pérez‐García, Zebensui Morales‐Reyes, Francisco Botella, Pedro P. Olea, Patricia Mateo‐Tomás, Marcos Moleón, Fernando Hiraldo, Eneko Arrondo, José A. Donázar, Ainara Cortés‐Avizanda, Nuria Selva, Sergio A. Lambertucci, Aishwarya Bhattacharjee, Alexis Brewer, Erin Abernethy, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Kelsey Turner, James C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, Andrés Ordiz, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Petter Wabakken, Christopher C. Wilmers, Justine A. Smith, Corinne J. Kendall, Darcy Ogada, Evan R. Buechley, Ethan Frehner, Maximilian L. Allen, Heiko U. Wittmer, James R.A. Butler, Johan T. du Toit, John Read, David Wilson, Klemen Jerina, Miha Krofel, Rich Kostecke, Richard Inger, Arockianathan Samson, Lara Naves‐Alegre, and José A. Sánchez‐Zapata

Comparing live-capture methods for nutria: single- versus multiple-capture cage traps, Trevor R. Sheffels, Mark D. Sytsma, Jacoby Carter, and Jimmy D. Taylor

Effectiveness of snap and A24-automated traps and broadcast anticoagulant bait in suppressing commensal rodents in Hawaii, Aaron B. Shiels, Tyler Bogardus, Jobriath Rohrer, and Kapua Kawelo

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 15. Psittacula krameri, the Rose-Ringed Parakeet (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae)1, Aaron B. Shiels and Nicholas P. Kalodimos

Trail cameras are a key monitoring tool for determining target and non-target bait-take during rodent removal operations: evidence from Desecheo Island rat eradication, Aaron B. Shiels, D. Will, C. Figuerola-Hernández, K.J. Swinnerton, S. Silander, C. Samra, and G.W. Witmer

In situ evaluation of an automated aerial bait delivery system for landscape-scale control of invasive brown treesnakes on Guam, Shane Siers, Will Pitt, John Eisemann, Larry Clark, Aaron B. Shiels, C. S. Clark, R. J. Gosnell, and M. C. Messaros

Low Secondary Risks for Captive Coyotes from a Sodium Nitrite Toxic Bait for Invasive Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Katherine E. Horak, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Movement responses inform effectiveness and consequences of baiting wild pigs for population control, Nathan P. Snow and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Ecological interventions to prevent and manage zoonotic pathogen spillover, Susanne H. Sokolow, Nicole Nova, Kim M. Pepin, Alison J. Peel, Juliet R.C. Pulliam, Kezia Manlove, Paul C. Cross, Daniel J. Becker, Raina K. Plowright, Hamish McCallum, and Giulio A. De Leo

A model for the prediction of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli based on a comparative evaluation of fatty acid profiles, Randal S. Stahl, Bledar Bisha, Sebabrata Mahapatra, and Jeffrey C. Chandler

Locally Fixed Alleles: A method to localize gene drive to island populations, Jaye Sudweeks, Brandon Hollingsworth, Dimitri V. Blondel, Karl J. Campbell, Sumit Dhole, John D. Eisemann, Owain Edwards, John Godwin, Gregg R. Howald, Kevin P. Oh, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Thomas A.A. Prowse, Joshua V. Ross, J. Royden Saah, Aaron B. Shiels, Paul Q. Thomas, David W. Threadgill, Michael R. Vella, Fred Gould, and Alun L. Lloyd

Machine learning to classify animal species in camera trap images: Applications in ecology, Michael A. Tabak, Mohammad S. Norouzzadeh, David W. Wolfson, Steven J. Sweeney, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Paul A. Di Salvo, Jesse S. Lewis, Michael D. White, Ben Teton, James C. Beasley, Peter E. Schlichting, Raoul K. Boughton, Bethany Wight, Eric S. Newkirk, Jacob S. Ivan, Eric A. Odell, Ryan K. Brook, Paul M. Lukacs, Anna K. Moeller, Elizabeth G. Mandeville, Jeff Clune, and Ryan S. Miller

Estimating economic impact of black bear damage to western conifers at a landscape scale, Jimmy D. Taylor, Kristina N. Kline, and Anita T. Morzillo

Experimental infections of Norway rats with avian‑derived low‑pathogenic influenza A viruses, Kaci K. VanDalen, Nicole M. Nemeth, Nicholas O. Thomas, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Heather J. Sullivan, Alan B. Franklin, and Susan A. Shriner

Double-crested cormorant colony effects on soil chemistry, vegetation structure and avian diversity, Leah Moran Veum, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, R.J. Moore, and Scott A. Rush

Data of soil, vegetation and bird species found on double-crested cormorant colonies in the southeastern United States, Leah Moran Veum, Brian S. Dorr, Katie Hanson-Dorr, R. J. Moore, and Scott A. Rush

The Role of Scavenging in Disease Dynamics, Joaquín Vicente and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Evaluation of two unmanned aircraft systems as tools for protecting crops from blackbird damage, Lucas J. Wandrie, Page E. Klug, and Mark E. Clark

Habitat selection by American beaverat multiple spatial scales, Guiming Wang, Lance F. McClintic, and Jimmy D. Taylor

No detection of brodifacoum residues in the marine and terrestrial food web three years after rat eradication at Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific, A. Wegmann, G. Howald, S. Kropidlowski, N. Holmes, and A.B. Shiels

Application strategy for an anthraquinonebased repellent and the protection of soybeans from Canada goose depredation, Scott J. Werner, Matthew Gottlob, Charles D. Dieter, and Joshua D. Stafford

Predicting functional responses in agro-ecosystems from animal movement data to improve management of invasive pests, Mark Q. Wilber, Sarah M. Chinn, James C. Beasley, Raoul K. Bourghton, Ryan K. Brooks, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Justin W. Fischer, Steve B. Hartley, Lindsey K. Holmstrom, John C. Kilgo, Jesse S. Lewis, Ryan S. Miller, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Samantha M. Wisely, Colleen T. Webb, and Kim M. Peen

The changing role of rodenticides and their alternatives in the management of commensal rodents, Gary Witmer

Black Bear Use of Forest Roads in Western Washington, Gary W. Witmer

Reducing Prairie Dog Populations and Damage by Castration of Dominant Males, Gary W. Witmer

Using DNA to Identify the Source of Invasive Mongooses, Herpestes auropunctatus (Carnivora: Herpestidae) Captured on Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands, Darren J. Wostenberg, Matthew W. Hopken, Aaron B. Shiels, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Contact rates with nesting birds before and after invasive snake removal: estimating the effects of trap-based control, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Melia G. Nafus, Page E. Klug, Björn Lardner, M.J. Mazurek, Julie A. Savidge, and Robert N. Reed

The past and future roles of competition and habitat in the range-wide occupancy dynamics of Northern Spotted Owls, Charles B. Yackulic, Larissa L. Bailey, Katie M. Dugger, Raymond J. Davis, Alan B. Franklin, Eric D. Forsman, Steven H. Ackers, Lawrence S. Andrews, Lowell V. Diller, Scott A. Gremel, Keith A. Hamm, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Rob B. Horn, Christopher McCafferty, Janice A. Reid, Jeremy T. Rockweit, and Stan G. Sovern

Mind the Gap: Experimental Tests to Improve Efficacy of Fladry for Nonlethal Management of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, John Draper, and Stewart Breck

Persistence and conspecific observations improve problem-solving abilities of coyotes, Julie K. Young, Laura Touzot, and Stacey P. Brummer

Allowable Take of Black Vultures in the Eastern United States, Guthrie Zimmerman, Brian A. Millsap, Michael L. Avery, John R. Sauer, Michael C. Runge, and Kenneth D. Richkus


Identifying individual cougars (Puma concolor) in remote camera images – implications for population estimates, Peter D. Alexander and Eric M. Gese

Environmental effects are stronger than human effects on mammalian predator-prey relationships in arid Australian ecosystems, Benjamin L. Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M. Engeman, Allan Lisle, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Absence of native flower visitors for the endangered Hawaiian mint Stenogyne angustifolia: Impending ecological extinction?, Clare E. Aslan, Christina T. Liang, Aaron B. Shiels, and William Haines

Operationalizing resilience for conservation objectives: the 4S’s, Clare E. Aslan, Brian Petersen, Aaron B. Shiels, William Haines, and Christina T. Lang

Monk and Rose-Ringed Parakeets, Michael L. Avery and Aaron B. Shiels

Reimmunization increases contraceptive effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine (GonaCon-Equine) in freeranging horses (Equus caballus): Limitations and side effects, Dan L. Baker, Jenny G. Powers, Jason I. Ransom, Blake E. McCann, Michael W. Oehler, Jason E. Bruemmer, Nathan L. Galloway, Douglas C. Eckery, and Terry M. Nett

Comparison of mixing methods and associated residual levels of zinc phosphide on cabbage bait for rodent management, Roger A. Baldwin, Benjamin G. Abbo, and David A. Goldade

The elusive search for an effective repellent against voles: an assessment of anthraquinone for citrus crops, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, Gary W. Witmer, and Scott J. Werner

Frogs (Coqui Frogs, Greenhouse Frogs, Cuban Tree Frogs, and Cane Toads), Karen H. Beard, Steve A. Johnson, and Aaron B. Shiels

Research Priorities for Managing Invasive Wild Pigs in North America, James C. Beasley, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, John J. Mayer, Mark D. Smith, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Livestock abundance predicts vampire bat demography, immune profiles and bacterial infection risk, Daniel J. Becker, Gábor Á. Czirják, Dmitriy V. Volokhov, Alexandra B. Bentz, Jorge E. Carrera, Melinda S. Camus, Kristen J. Navara, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, M. Brock Fenton, Nancy B. Simmons, Sergio E. Recuenco, Amy T. Gilbert, Sonia Altizer, and Daniel G. Streicker

BOOK REVIEW, Are R. Berentsen

Seroconversion of Raccoons Following Two Oral Rabies Vaccination Baiting Strategies, Are R. Berentsen, Erin M. Patrick, Chad Blass, Keith Wehner, Brett Dunlap, Bradley Hicks, Robert Hale, Richard B. Chipman, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Ecology of the Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in North America, Are R. Berentsen, William C. Pitt, and Robert T. Sugihara

Is Razor-wire an Effective Deterrent for Birds Perching on Security Fences at Airports?, David L. Bergman and Brian E. Washburn

European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) reproduction undeterred by predator scent inside nest boxes, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, and Bruce N. Buckingham

Management of Wintering Short-eared Owls at Airports in the Lower Great Lakes Region, Aaron Bowden, Robert J. Hromack, Christopher H. Loftis, and Brian E. Washburn

A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks, Vienna R. Brown and Sarah N. Bevins

A Review of Classical Swine Fever virus and Routes of introduction into the United States and the Potential for virus establishment, Vienna R. Brown and Sarah N. Bevins

Resource partitioning between kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) and coyotes (Canis latrans): a comparison of historical and contemporary dietary overlap, P. A. Byerly, R. C. Lonsinger, E. M. Gese, A. J. Kozlowski, and L. P. Waits

Prophage induction reduces Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella enterica on tomatoes and spinach: A model study, Brigitte Cadieux, Anna Colavecchio, Julie Jeukens, Luca Freschi, Jean-Guillaume Emond-Rheault, Irena Kukavica-Ibrulj, Roger C. Levesque, Sakjia Bekal, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Shannon M. Coleman, Bledar Bisha, and Lawrence D. Goodridge

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by red-winged blackbirds and projected impacts on dairy cow performance, James C. Carlson, Randal S. Stahl, John J. Wagner, Terry E. Engle, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Dustin A. Reid, and Scott J. Werner

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage, James C. Carlson, R. S. Stahl, S. T. DeLiberto, J. J. Wagner, T. E. Engle, R. M. Engeman, C. S. Olson, J. W. Ellis, and S. J. Werner

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage, James C. Carlson, R. S. Stahl, S. T. DeLiberto, J. J. Wagner, T. E. Engle, R. M. Engeman, C. S. Olson, J. W. Ellis, and S. J. Werner

Short communication: A countrywide survey of antimicrobialresistant indicator bacteria in Kosovo’s dairy farms, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Sulaiman F. Aljasir, Afrim Hamidi, Driton Sylejmani, Kenneth G. Gerow, and Bledar Bisha

Plumage Changes in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) Within the Breeding Season: the Risks of Aging by Plumage, Jennifer E. Chastant and D. Tommy King

Brown Tree Snakes Methods and Approaches for Control, Larry Clark, Craig S. Clark, and Shane Siers

Impacts of biomass production at civil airports on grassland bird conservation and aviation strike risk, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and James A. Martin

Using Off-the-Shelf Technologies to Mass Manufacture Oral Vaccine Baits for Wildlife, Lucila M. Corro, Daniel W. Tripp, Scott A. Stelting, and Michael W. Miller

Potential of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), and Wood Storks (Mycteria americana) to Transmit a Hypervirulent Strain of Aeromonas hydrophila between Channel Catfish Culture Ponds, Fred L. Cunningham, Madison M. Jubirt, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Lorelei Ford, Paul Fioranelli, and Larry A. Hanson

Costs and effectiveness of damage management of an overabundant species (Sus scrofa) using aerial gunning, Amy J. Davis, Bruce Leland, Michael Bodenchuk, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Kim M. Pepin

Quantifying site-level usage and certainty of absence for an invasive species through occupancy analysis of camera-trap data, Amy J. Davis, Ryan McCreary, Jeremiah Psiropoulos, Gary Brennan, Terry Cox, Andrew Partin, and Kim M. Pepin

Accounting for observation processes across multiple levels of uncertainty improves inference of species distributions and guides adaptive sampling of environmental DNA, Amy J. Davis, Kelly E. Williams, Nathan P. Snow, Kim M. Pepin, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Effects of immunization against bone morphogenetic protein-15 and growth differentiation factor-9 on ovarian function in mares, Kelli A. Davis, Kristin M. Klohonatz, Darcy S.O. Mora, Hannah M. Twenter, Peter E. Graham, Pablo Pinedo, Douglas C. Eckery, and Jason E. Bruemmer

Efficacy of repellent-treated structural barriers for Richardson’s ground squirrels (Urocitellus richardsonii (Sabine)) and house mice (Mus musculus L.), Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, and Scott J. Werner

Black - billed Magpie Agonistic Mobbing Attack on a Bullsnake, James J. DeLutes III and Richard M. Engeman

PITUOPHIS CATENIFER SAYI (Bullsnake). AGONISTIC MOBBING ATTACK., James J. Delutes III and Richard M. Engeman

How Behavior of Nontarget Species Affects Perceived Accuracy of Scat Detection Dog Surveys, Karen E. DeMatteo, Linsey W. Blake, Julie K. Young, and Barbara Davenport

Estimating Interspecific Economic Risk of Bird Strikes With Aircraft, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Michael J. Begier, Jason D. Kougher, Jenny E. Washburn, Phyllis R. Miller, and Richard A. Dolbeer

Individual variation in avian avoidance behaviours in response to repeated, simulated vehicle approach, Travis L. DeVault, T. W. Seamans, B. F. Blackwell, S. L. Lima, and E. Fernandez-Juricic

Persistence of maternal antibodies to influenza A virus among captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), Katherine L. Dirsmith, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Heather J. Sullivan, Andrea B. Liebowitz, Lauren H. Petersen, Hailey E. McLean, and Susan A. Shriner

Evaluating Blackbird Behavioral Response Toward Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs): Exploiting Antipredator Behavior to Enhance Avoidance, Conor C. Egan, Lucas Wandrie, Bradley F. Blackwell, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, and Page E. Klug

Chapter 11 An International Perspective on the Regulation of Rodenticides, John D. Eisemann, Penny M. Fisher, Alan Buckle, and Simon Humphrys

Towards canine rabies elimination: Economic comparisons of three project sites, J. L. Elser, B. G. Hatch, L. H. Taylor, L. H. Nel, and S. A. Shwiff

Common Ravens Conditioned to a Nutritious Seasonal Aquatic Food Source in Rocky Mountain National Park, Richard M. Engeman

Diverse examples from managing invasive vertebrate species on inhabited islands of the United States, Richard M. Engeman, Michael L. Avery, Aaron B. Shiels, Are R. Berentsen, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Robert T. Sugihara, Anthony G. Duffiney, Craig S. Clark, and John D. Eisemann

Objectives and integrated approaches for the control of brown tree snakes: An updated overview, Richard M. Engeman, Aaron B. Shiels, and Craig S. Clark

Prevalence and amount of feral swine damage to three row crops at planting, Richard M. Engeman, Jason Terry, Leif R. Stephens, and Kenneth S. Gruver

Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States, Lucas Ferguson, Kaijian Luo, Alicia K. Olivier, Fred L. Cunningham, Sherry Blackmon, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Hailiang Sun, John Baroch, Mark W. Lutman, Bianca Quade, William Epperson, Richard Webby, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Species With Greater Aerial Maneuverability Have Higher Frequency of Collisions With Aircraft: A Comparative Study, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, James Brand, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, and Travis L. DeVault

Effectiveness of GonaCon as an immunocontraceptive in colony-housed cats, Amy Fischer, Valerie A.W. Benka, Joyce R. Briggs, Marc-Antoine Driancourt, Joanne Maki, Darcy S.O. Mora, Kevin N. Morris, Kayla A. Myers, Linda Rhodes, Lindsey M. Vansandt, George Robert Weedon, Julie Wolf, and Julie K. Levy

Predicting the initial spread of novel Asian origin influenza A viruses in the continental USA by wild waterfowl, Alan. B. Franklin, Sarah N. Bevins, Jeremy W. Ellis, Ryan S. Miller, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root, Daniel P. Walsh, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Grass is not always greener: rodenticide exposure of a threatened species near marijuana growing operations, Alan B. Franklin, Peter C. Carlson, Angela Rex, Jeremy T. Rockwelt, David Garza, Emily Culhane, Steven F. Volker, Robert J. Dusek, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Mourad W. Gabriel, and Katherine E. Horak

Accounting for location uncertainty in azimuthal telemetry data improves ecological inference, Brian D. Gerber, Mevin B. Hooten, Christopher P. Peck, Mindy B. Rice, James H. Gammonley, Anthony D. Apa, and Amy J. Davis

Sharing an environment with sick conspecifics alters odors of healthy animals, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Maryanne Opiekun, Talia Martin, Gary K. Beauchamp, and Bruce A. Kimball

Influence of behavioral state, sex, and season on resource selection by jaguars (Panthera onca): Always on the prowl?, Eric M. Gese, Patricia A. Terletzky, Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti, and Christopher M. U. Neale

Cross-fostering as a conservation tool to augment endangered carnivore populations, Eric M. Gese, William T. Waddell, Patricia A. Terletzky, Chris F. Lucash, Scott R. McLellan, and Susan K. Behrns

FIELD TRIALS OF ONTARIO RABIES VACCINE BAIT IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA, 2012–14, Amy Gilbert, Shylo R. Johnson, Kathleen M. Nelson, Richard B. Chipman, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Timothy P. Algeo, Charles E. Rupprecht, and Dennis Slate