The mission of USDA APHIS Wildlife Services (WS) is to provide Federal leadership and expertise to resolve wildlife conflicts to allow people and wildlife to coexist. WS conducts program delivery, research, and other activities through its Regional and State Offices, the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) and its Field Stations, as well as through its National Programs.

This site contains publications of WS or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


LIVESTOCK GUARDING DOGS TODAY: POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO PERCEIVED LIMITATIONS, Silvia Ribeiro, Jenny Dornig, Ana Guerra, Jasna Jeremic, Jean-Marc Landry, Daniel Mettler, Vicente Palacios, Ueli Pfister, Simone Ricci, Robin Rigg, Valeria Salvatori, Sider Sedefchev, Elena Tsingarska, Linda van Bommel, Luisa Vielmi, Julie K. Young, and Margherita Zingaro

Differential impacts of wildfire on the population dynamics of an old-forest species, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Alan B. Franklin, and Peter C. Carlson

Transmission of H6N2 wild bird-origin influenza A virus among multiple bird species in a stacked-cage setting, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Alan B. Franklin

Low viral doses are sufficient to infect cottontail rabbits with avian influenza A virus, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Heather J. Sullivan

Clinostomum album n. sp. and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), parasites of the great egret Ardea alba L. from Mississippi, USA, Thomas G. Rosser, Neely R. Alberson, Ethan T. Woodyard, Fred L. Cunningham, Linda M. Pote, and Matt J. Griffin

Clinostomum album n. sp. and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), parasites of the great egret Ardea alba L. from Mississippi, USA, Thomas G. Rosser, Neely R. Alberson, Ethan T. Woodyard, Fred L. Cunningham, Linda M. Pote, and Matt J. Griffin

The 17th Rocky Mountain Virology Association Meeting, Joel Rovnak, Rushika Perera, Matthew W. Hopken, Jenna Read, Derrick M. Waller, and Randall J. Cohrs

Investigation of techniques to measure cortisol and testosterone concentrations in coyote hair, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Efficacy of an Acoustic Hailing Device as an Avian Dispersal Tool, Peter E. Schlichting, Amanda E. Holland, James C. Beasley, Albert L. Bryan, Robert A. Kennamer, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Using species distribution models to define nesting habitat of the eastern metapopulation of double-crested cormorants, Kate L. Sheehan, Samuel T. Esswein, Brian S. Dorr, Greg K. Yarrow, and Ron J. Johnson

The influence of geographical location, host maturity and sex on intestinal helminth communities of the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus from the eastern United States, K. L. Sheehan, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, Brian S. Dorr, G. K. Yarrow, and R. J. Johnson

Sudden appearance and population outbreak of Eunica monima (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on Desecheo Island, Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels, William P. Haines, Kirsty J. Swinnerton, Susan Silander, Cielo Figuerola-Hernández, David Will, Juan G. García-Cancel, and Christian W. Torres-Santana

Shifts in an invasive rodent community favoring Black rats (Rattus rattus) following restoration of native forest, Aaron B. Shiels, Arthur Medeiros, and Erica I. von Allmen

The Economic Impact of Blackbird Damage to Crops, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karina L. Ernest, Samantha L. Degroot, Aaron M. Anderson, and Steven S. Shwiff

Ontogenetic and ecological variation in invasion risk of Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, Shane R. Siers, Julie A. Savidge, and Robert N. Reed

Quantile regression of microgeographic variation in population characteristics of an invasive vertebrate predator, Shane R. Siers, Julie A. Savidge, and Robert N. Reed

Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach, Jonathan M. Sleeman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Natalie Nguyen

Different prey resources suggest little competition between non-native frogs and insectivorous birds despite isotopic niche overlap, Robyn L. Smith, Karen H. Beard, and Aaron B. Shiels

Comparison of a Micro-Neutralization Test with the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for Measuring Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies, Todd G. Smith and Amy T. Gilbert


Development of Toxic Bait to Control Invasive Wild Pigs and Reduce Damage, Nathan P. Snow, Justin A. Foster, John C. Kinsey, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Strength Testing of Raccoons and Invasive Wild Pigs for a Species-Specific Bait Station, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Strength Testing of Raccoons and Invasive Wild Pigs for a Species-Specific Bait Station, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Adaptation of the Aesop’s Fable paradigm for use with raccoons (Procyon lotor): considerations for future application in non‑avian and non‑primate species, Lauren Stanton, Emily Davis, Shylo Johnson, Amy T. Gilbert, and Sarah Benson-Amram

Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho, Suzanne A. Stone, Stewart W. Breck, Jesse Timberlake, Peter M. Haswell, Fernando Najera, Brian S. Bean, and Daniel J. Thornhill

Anthropogenic factors predict movement of an invasive species, Michael A. Tabak, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Ryan S. Miller, Rick A. Sweitzer, and Holly B. Ernest

Wide but Variable Distribution of a Hypervirulent Campylobacter jejuni Clone in Beef and Dairy Cattle in the United States, Yizhi Tang, Richard J. Meinersmann, Orhan Sahin, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, James C. Carlson, Jodie Plumblee Lawrence, Linda Genzlinger, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, and Qijing Zhang

Rising fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter isolated from feedlot cattle in the United States, Yizhi Tang, Orhan Sahin, Nada Pavlovic, Jeff LeJeune, James C. Carlson, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, and Qijing Zhang

Greater Sage-Grouse Nest Survival in Northwestern Wyoming, Jimmy D. Taylor II, R. Douglas Holt, Elizabeth K. Orning, and Julie K. Young

Ecological Potential for Rabies Virus Transmission via Scavenging of Dead Bats by Mesocarnivores, Tad C. Theimer, Annie C. Dyer, Brian W. Keeley, Amy T. Gilbert, and David L. Bergman

Bird Feeders as Locations for Skunk Uptake of Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits, Tad C. Theimer, Tisheena Talk, Shylo Johnson, and David L. Bergman

Den use and heterothermy during winter in free-living, suburban striped skunks, Tad C. Theimer, Cory T. Williams, Shylo R. Johnson, Amy T. Gilbert, David L. Bergman, and C. Loren Buck

The impact of poverty on dog ownership and access to canine rabies vaccination: results from a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey, Uganda 2013, Ryan M. Wallace, Jason Mehal, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Sergio Recuenco, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, Modupe Osinubi, Victor Tugumizemu, Jesse D. Blanton, Amy T. Gilbert, and Joseph Wamala

Impact locations and damage to civil and military rotary-wing aircraft from wildlife strikes, Brian E. Washburn, Paul Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

Effective Dose and Persistence of Rhodamine-B in Wild Pig Vibrissae, Sarah C. Webster, Fred L. Cunningham, John C. Kilgo, Mark A. Vukovich, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and James C. Beasley

Effective Dose and Persistence of Rhodamine-B in Wild Pig Vibrissae, Sarah C. Webster, Fred L. Cunningham, John C. Kilgo, Mark A. Vukovich, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and James C. Beasley

Chemical Repellents, Scott J. Werner and Michael L. Avery

Clearing muddied waters: Capture of environmental DNA from turbid waters, Kelly E. Williams, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Detection and persistence of environmental DNA from an invasive, terrestrial mammal, Kelly e. Williams, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Amy J. Davis, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Identifying possible alternative rodenticide baits to replace strychnine baits for pocket gophers in California, Gary W. Witmer, Roger A. Baldwin, and Rachael S. Moulton

Identifying possible alternative rodenticide baits to replace strychnine baits for pocket gophers in California, Gary W. Witmer, Roger A. Baldwin, and Rachael S. Moulton

Compromised Fertility In Free Feeding Of Wildcaught Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) With A Liquid Bait Containing 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide And Triptolide, Gary W. Witmer, Stefanie Raymond-Whish, Rachael S. Moulton, Brandy R. Pyzyna, Elissa M. Calloway, Cheryl A. Dyer, Loretta P. Mayer, and Patricia B. Hoyer

Low-Pathogenic Influenza A Viruses in North American Diving Ducks Contribute to the Emergence of a Novel Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H7N8) Virus, Yifei Xu, Andrew M. Ramey, Andrew S. Bowman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Mary L. Killian, Scott Krauss, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Mia Kim Torchetti, Andrew B. Reeves, Richard J. Webby, David E. Stallknecht, and Xiu-Feng Wan

DiazaCon reduces black-tailed prairie dog reproduction in Colorado, Christi A. Yoder, Richard E. Mauldin, James P. Gionfriddo, Kenneth A. Crane, David A. Goldade, and Richard M. Engeman


Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8

Use of claims data to estimate annual cervical cancer screening percentages in Portland metropolitan area, Oregon, Nasreen Abdullah, Robert S. Laing, Susan Hariri, Collette M. Young, and Sean Schafer

Natality of Yearling Coyotes in West Virginia, G. G. Albers, J. W. Edwards, R. E. Rogers, and L. L. Mastro

Supplementary feeding and endangered avian scavengers: benefits, caveats, and controversies, Ainara Cortés- Avizanda, Guillermo Blanco, Travis L. Devault, Anil Markandya, Munir Z Virani, Joseph Brandt, and José A Donázar

Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America, Elizabeth Bailey, Li-Ping Long, Nan Zhao, Jeffrey S. Hall, John A. Baroch, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Lucy Senter, Frederick L. Cunningham, G. Todd Pharr, Larry Hanson, Richard Slemons, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Cholecalciferol plus diphacinone baits for vole control: a novel approach to a historic problem, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Novel and current rodenticides for pocket gopher Thomomys spp. management in vineyards: what works?, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Plant community shifts caused by feral swine rooting devalue Florida rangeland, Brittany Bankovich, Elizabeth Boughton, Raoul Boughton, Michael L. Avery, and Samantha M. Wisely

Bait flavor preference and immunogenicity of ONRAB baits in domestic dogs on the Navajo Nation, Arizona, Are R. Berentsen, Scott Bender, Peggy Bender, David Bergman, Amy T. Gilbert, Hannah M. Rowland, and Kurt C. VerCauteren


Widespread detection of highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses in wild birds from the Pacific Flyway of the United States, S. N. Bevins; R. J. Dusek; C. L. White; T. Gidlewski; B. Bodenstein; K. G, Mansfield; P. DeBruyn; D. Kraege; E. Rowan; C. Gillin; B. Thomas; S. Chandler; J. A. Baroch; B. S. Schmit; M. J. Grady; R. S. Miller; M. L. Drew; S. Stopak; B. Zscheile; J. Bennett; J. Sengl; Caroline Brady; H. S. Ip; E. Spackman; M. L. Killian; M. K. Torchetti; J. M. Sleeman; and T. J. Deliberto

Effects of visual obstruction, prey resources, and satiety on bird use of simulated airport grasslands, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Kimberly Linnell, Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, and Travis L. DeVault

Cougar Predation Rates and Prey Composition in the Pryor Mountains of Wyoming and Montana, Linsey W. Blake and Eric M. Gese

Resource Selection by Cougars: Influence of Behavioral State and Season, Linsey W. Blake and Eric M. Gese

Report to the Chicago Park District on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2015 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, M. L. Bloomquist, J.W. Hartmann, C.K. Pullins, T.G. Guerrant, S. F. Beckerman, and R. M. Engeman

Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Richard A. Bowen, and J. Jeffrey Root

Vertebrate Host Susceptibility to Heartland Virus, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Amanda E. Calvert, J. Jeffrey Root, Tom Gidlewski, Brian H. Bird, Richard A. Bowen, Atis Muehlenbachs, Sherif R. Zaki, and Aaron C. Brault

Morphometric Variation during Chick Development in Interior Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Jennifer E. Chastant, Corey T. Callaghan, and D. Tommy King

New Study Underway to Estimate the Impact of Lesser Scaup on Arkansas’ Baitfish Industry, Stephen Clements, Brian Davis, Brian S. Dorr, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly, and Carole R. Engle

Aquaculture Depredation by Double-Crested Cormorants Breeding in Eastern North America, Elizabeth C. Craig, D. Tommy King, Jed P. Sparks, and Paul D. Curtis

Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions, Amy J. Davis, Mevin B. Hooten, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew L. Farnsworth, Jesse Lewis, Michael Moxcey, and Kim M. Pepin

Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection, Shelagh T. DeLiberto and Scott J. Werner

Tracking a Deadly Virus HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA IN WILD BIRDS, Tom DeLiberto and Gail Keirn

Ecosystem Services Provided by Avian Scavengers, Travis L. DeVault, James C. Beasley, Zachary H. Olson, Marcos Moleón, Martina Carrete, Antoni Margalida, and José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata

Identification of Off Airport Interspecific Avian Hazards to Aircraft, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, and Jerrold L. Belant

Speed Kills: Effects of Vehicle Speed on Avian Escape Behavior, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Reproductive Characteristics of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Eastern United States: Demographic Information for an Intensely Managed Species, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Scott C. Barras, and Travis L. DeVault

The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls, Katie M. Dugger, Eric D. Forsman, Alan B. Franklin, Raymond J. Davis, Gary C. White, Carl J. Schwarz, Kenneth P. Burnham, James D. Nichols, James E. Hines, Charles B. Yackulic, Paul F. Doherty Jr., Larissa Bailey, Darren A. Clark, Steven H. Ackers, Lawrence S. Andrews, Benjamin Augustine, Brian L. Biswell, Jennifer Blakesley, Peter C. Carlson, Matthew J. Clement, Lowell V. Diller, Elizabeth M. Glenn, Adam Green, Scott A. Gremel, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Jeremy Hobson, Rob B. Horn, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Christopher McCafferty, Trent McDonald, Kevin McDonnell, Gail S. Olson, Janice A. Reid, Jeremy Rockweit, Viviana Ruiz, Jessica Saenz, and Stan G. Sovern


Economic impacts of bird damage and management in U.S. sweet cherry production, J. L. Elser, A. M. Anderson, C. A. Lindell, N. Dalsted, A. Bernasek, and S. A. Shwiff

Defending against disparate marine turtle nest predators: nesting success benefits from eradicating invasive feral swine and caging nests from raccoons, Richard M. Engeman, David Addison, and J. C. Griffin

Prioritizing Management and Research Actions against Invasive Reptiles in Florida: A Collaboration by an Expert Panel, Richard M. Engeman and Michael L. Avery

Guiding the management of an agricultural pest: Indexing abundance of California meadow voles in artichoke fields, Richard M. Engeman, Roger A. Baldwin, and Denise I. Stetson

Photographic estimation of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in the Carpathian Mountains of central Romania, Richard M. Engeman, Renate Cattaruzza, Marco Cattaruzza, and Justin W. Fischer

Monitoring cryptic amphibians and reptiles in a Florida state park, Richard M. Engeman, Walter E. Meshaka Jr., Robert Severson, Mary Ann Severson, Greg Kaufman, N. Paige Groninger, and Henry T. Smith

Feral swine damage to globally imperiled wetland plant communities in a significant biodiversity hotspot in Florida, Richard M. Engeman, Steve L. Orzell, Rodney K. Felix, Eric A. Tillman, Gary Killian, and Michael L. Avery

Evaluating a Strategy to Deliver Vaccine to White-tailed Deer at a Landscape Level, Justin W. Fischer, Chad R. Blass, W. David Walter, Charles W. Anderson, Michael J. Lavelle, Wayne H. Hall, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Effects of simulated removal activities on movements and space use of feral swine, Justin W. Fischer, Dan McMurty, Chad R. Blass, W. David Walter, Jeff Beringer, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Chapter 8 Keeping Wildlife Out of Your Food: Mitigation and Control Strategies to Reduce the Transmission Risk of Food-Borne Pathogens, Alan B. Franklin and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluation of an Avian Radar System in a Midwestern Landscape, Michael B. Gerringer, Steven L. Lima, and Travis L. DeVault

Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captiveadult female coyotes (Canis latrans), Eric M. Gese, Beth M. Roberts, and Frederick F. Knowlton

Identification of kill sites from GPS clusters for jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil, Eric M. Gese, Patricia Terletzky, and Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti

Molecular forensics in avian conservation: a DNA‑based approach for identifying mammalian predators of ground‑nesting birds and eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Elizabeth K. Orning, Julie K. Young, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

High Rates of Detection of Clade Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in Wild Birds in the Pacific Northwest During the Winter of 2014–15, Hon S. Ip, Robert J. Dusek, Barbara Bodenstein, Mia Kim Torchetti, Paul DeBruyn, Kristin Mansfield, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Jonathan M. Sleeman

Is there a future for genome-editing technologies in conservation?, J. A. Johnson, R. Altwegg, D. M. Evans, J. G. Ewen, I. J. Gordon, N. Pettorelli, and J. K. Young

Estimates of Small Indian Mongoose Densities: Implications for Rabies Management, Shylo R. Johnson, Are R. Berentsen, Christine Ellis, Amy Davis, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Chapter 3: One Health, One Medicine, Laura H. Kahn, Thomas P. Monath, Bob H. Bokma, E. Paul Gibbs, and A. Alonso Aguirre

Blackbird Damage is an Important Agronomic Factor Influencing Sunflower Production, Hans Kandel and George M. Linz

Optimization of Scat Detection Methods for a Social Ungulate, the Wild Pig, and Experimental Evaluation of Factors Affecting Detection of Scat, David A. Keiter, Fred L. Cunningham, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Brian J. Irwin, and James C. Beasley

Evaluation of boldness assays and associated behavioral measures in a social parrot, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus), Kaan Kerman, Kathryn E. Sieving, Colette S. Mary, and Michael L. Avery

Identification of Robust Microsatellite Markers for Wild Pig Fecal DNA, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Shem D. Unger, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Fred L. Cunningham, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Mary Lea Killian, Mia Kim Torchetti, Nichole Hines, Sam Yingst, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Dong-Hun Lee

Development of artificial bait for brown treesnake suppression, Bruce A. Kimball, Scott A. Sterling, Thomas W. McAuliffe, Randal S. Stahl, Rafael A. Garcia, and William C. Pitt

Alterations of the volatile metabolome in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Bruce A. Kimball, Donald A. Wilson, and Daniel W. Weason

Winter and Summer Home Ranges of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) Captured at Loafing Sites in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Justin W. Fischer, Bronson Strickland, W. David Walter, Fred L. Cunningham, and Guiming Wang

The influence of wildlife water developments and vegetation on rodent abundance in the Great Basin Desert, Bryan M. Kluever, Eric M. Gese, and Steven J. Dempsey