National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

4101 LaPorte Avenue
Fort Collins, CO 80521
tel: (970) 266-6000 fax: (970) 266-6032

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


Tracking a Deadly Virus HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA IN WILD BIRDS, Tom DeLiberto and Gail Keirn

Ecosystem Services Provided by Avian Scavengers, Travis L. DeVault, James C. Beasley, Zachary H. Olson, Marcos Moleón, Martina Carrete, Antoni Margalida, and José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata

Identification of Off Airport Interspecific Avian Hazards to Aircraft, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, and Jerrold L. Belant

Speed Kills: Effects of Vehicle Speed on Avian Escape Behavior, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Reproductive Characteristics of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Eastern United States: Demographic Information for an Intensely Managed Species, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Scott C. Barras, and Travis L. DeVault

The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls, Katie M. Dugger, Eric D. Forsman, Alan B. Franklin, Raymond J. Davis, Gary C. White, Carl J. Schwarz, Kenneth P. Burnham, James D. Nichols, James E. Hines, Charles B. Yackulic, Paul F. Doherty Jr., Larissa Bailey, Darren A. Clark, Steven H. Ackers, Lawrence S. Andrews, Benjamin Augustine, Brian L. Biswell, Jennifer Blakesley, Peter C. Carlson, Matthew J. Clement, Lowell V. Diller, Elizabeth M. Glenn, Adam Green, Scott A. Gremel, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Jeremy Hobson, Rob B. Horn, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Christopher McCafferty, Trent McDonald, Kevin McDonnell, Gail S. Olson, Janice A. Reid, Jeremy Rockweit, Viviana Ruiz, Jessica Saenz, and Stan G. Sovern


Economic impacts of bird damage and management in U.S. sweet cherry production, J. L. Elser, A. M. Anderson, C. A. Lindell, N. Dalsted, A. Bernasek, and S. A. Shwiff

Defending against disparate marine turtle nest predators: nesting success benefits from eradicating invasive feral swine and caging nests from raccoons, Richard M. Engeman, David Addison, and J. C. Griffin

Prioritizing Management and Research Actions against Invasive Reptiles in Florida: A Collaboration by an Expert Panel, Richard M. Engeman and Michael L. Avery

Guiding the management of an agricultural pest: Indexing abundance of California meadow voles in artichoke fields, Richard M. Engeman, Roger A. Baldwin, and Denise I. Stetson

Photographic estimation of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in the Carpathian Mountains of central Romania, Richard M. Engeman, Renate Cattaruzza, Marco Cattaruzza, and Justin W. Fischer

Monitoring cryptic amphibians and reptiles in a Florida state park, Richard M. Engeman, Walter E. Meshaka Jr., Robert Severson, Mary Ann Severson, Greg Kaufman, N. Paige Groninger, and Henry T. Smith

Feral swine damage to globally imperiled wetland plant communities in a significant biodiversity hotspot in Florida, Richard M. Engeman, Steve L. Orzell, Rodney K. Felix, Eric A. Tillman, Gary Killian, and Michael L. Avery

Evaluating a Strategy to Deliver Vaccine to White-tailed Deer at a Landscape Level, Justin W. Fischer, Chad R. Blass, W. David Walter, Charles W. Anderson, Michael J. Lavelle, Wayne H. Hall, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Effects of simulated removal activities on movements and space use of feral swine, Justin W. Fischer, Dan McMurty, Chad R. Blass, W. David Walter, Jeff Beringer, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Chapter 8 Keeping Wildlife Out of Your Food: Mitigation and Control Strategies to Reduce the Transmission Risk of Food-Borne Pathogens, Alan B. Franklin and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluation of an Avian Radar System in a Midwestern Landscape, Michael B. Gerringer, Steven L. Lima, and Travis L. DeVault

Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captiveadult female coyotes (Canis latrans), Eric M. Gese, Beth M. Roberts, and Frederick F. Knowlton

Identification of kill sites from GPS clusters for jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil, Eric M. Gese, Patricia Terletzky, and Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti

Molecular forensics in avian conservation: a DNA‑based approach for identifying mammalian predators of ground‑nesting birds and eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Elizabeth K. Orning, Julie K. Young, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

High Rates of Detection of Clade Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in Wild Birds in the Pacific Northwest During the Winter of 2014–15, Hon S. Ip, Robert J. Dusek, Barbara Bodenstein, Mia Kim Torchetti, Paul DeBruyn, Kristin Mansfield, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Jonathan M. Sleeman

Is there a future for genome-editing technologies in conservation?, J. A. Johnson, R. Altwegg, D. M. Evans, J. G. Ewen, I. J. Gordon, N. Pettorelli, and J. K. Young

Estimates of Small Indian Mongoose Densities: Implications for Rabies Management, Shylo R. Johnson, Are R. Berentsen, Christine Ellis, Amy Davis, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Chapter 3: One Health, One Medicine, Laura H. Kahn, Thomas P. Monath, Bob H. Bokma, E. Paul Gibbs, and A. Alonso Aguirre

Blackbird Damage is an Important Agronomic Factor Influencing Sunflower Production, Hans Kandel and George M. Linz

Optimization of Scat Detection Methods for a Social Ungulate, the Wild Pig, and Experimental Evaluation of Factors Affecting Detection of Scat, David A. Keiter, Fred L. Cunningham, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Brian J. Irwin, and James C. Beasley

Evaluation of boldness assays and associated behavioral measures in a social parrot, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus), Kaan Kerman, Kathryn E. Sieving, Colette S. Mary, and Michael L. Avery

Identification of Robust Microsatellite Markers for Wild Pig Fecal DNA, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Shem D. Unger, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Fred L. Cunningham, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Mary Lea Killian, Mia Kim Torchetti, Nichole Hines, Sam Yingst, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Dong-Hun Lee

Development of artificial bait for brown treesnake suppression, Bruce A. Kimball, Scott A. Sterling, Thomas W. McAuliffe, Randal S. Stahl, Rafael A. Garcia, and William C. Pitt

Alterations of the volatile metabolome in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Bruce A. Kimball, Donald A. Wilson, and Daniel W. Weason

Winter and Summer Home Ranges of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) Captured at Loafing Sites in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Justin W. Fischer, Bronson Strickland, W. David Walter, Fred L. Cunningham, and Guiming Wang

The influence of wildlife water developments and vegetation on rodent abundance in the Great Basin Desert, Bryan M. Kluever, Eric M. Gese, and Steven J. Dempsey

Evaluating wildlife-cattle contact rates to improve the understanding of dynamics of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Michigan, USA, Michael J. Lavelle, Shannon L. Kay, and Kim M. Pepin

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014–2015, Dong-Hun Lee, Justin Bahl, Mia Kim Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Hon S. Ip, Thomas J. Deliberto, and David E. Swayne

Proportions of bird damage in tree fruits are higher in low-fruit-abundance contexts, Catherine A. Lindell, Karen M.M. Steensma, Paul D. Curtis, Jason R. Boulanger, Juliet E. Carroll, Colleen Burrows, David P. Lusch, Nikki L. Rothwell, Shayna L. Wieferich, Heidi M. Henrichs, Deanna K. Leigh, Rachael A. Eaton, and George M. Linz

Plants, prions and possibilities: Current understanding and significance of prion uptake into plants, Tracy A. Nichols

Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease, Tracy A. Nichols, Terry R. Spraker, Thomas Gidlewski, Bruce Cummings, Dana Hill, Qingzhong Kong, and Aru Balachandran

Widespread Detection of Antibodies to Eastern Equine Encephalitis, West Nile, St. Louis Encephalitis, and Turlock Viruses in Various Species of Wild Birds from Across the United States, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Eryu Wang, Gillian Eastwood, Scott C. Weaver, Samuel M. Goldstein, David R. Sinnett, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Disease-emergence dynamics and control in a socially-structured wildlife species, Kim M. Pepin and Kurt C. VerCauteren

A Noninvasive Method to Detect Mexican Wolves and Estimate Abundance, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Chip.A. Cariappa, Dyan J. Straughan, Melissa Neubaum, Margaret Dwire, Paul R. Krausman, Warren B. Ballard, David L. Bergman, and Stewart W. Breck

Environmental factors influencing the occurrence of coyotes and conflicts in urban areas, Sharon A. Poessel, Eric M. Gese, and Julie K. Young

Weak support for disappearance and restricted emergence/persistence of highly pathogenic influenza A in North American waterfowl, Andrew M. Ramey, Erica Spackman, Mia Kim-Torchetti, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Integrating early detection with DNA barcoding: species identification of a nonnative monitor lizard (Squamata: Varanidae) carcass in Mississippi, U.S.A., Robert N. Reed, Matthew W. Hopken, David Steensen, Bryan G. Falk, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Effects of Renewable Energy Production and Infrastructure on Wildlife, José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Miguel Clavero, Martina Carrete, Travis L. DeVault, Virgilio Hermoso, Miguel Angel Losada, María José Polo, Sonia Sánchez-Navarro, Juan Manuel Pérez-García, Francisco Botella, Carlos Ibáñez, and José Antonio Donázar

Olfactory attractants and parity affect prenatal androgens and territoriality of coyote breeding pairs, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Horned lark damage to pre-emerged canola seedlings, William F. Schillinger and Scott J. Werner

Use of predator hair to enhance perceived risk to white-tailed deer in a foraging context, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Kimberly E. Linnell

Susceptibility of rock doves to low-pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Scott R. Stopak, Heather J. Sullivan, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Alan B. Franklin

Evaluation of estimation quality of a general paradigm for indexing animal abundance when observations are counts, Benjamin Shulman, Brandie D. Wagner, Gary K. Grunwald, and Richard M. Engeman

A benefit-cost analysis decision framework for mitigation of disease transmission at the wildlife–livestock interface, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Steven J. Sweeney, Julie L. Elser, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Pauline Nol, Steven S. Shwiff, and Aaron M. Anderson

Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael J. Lavelle, Thomas E. Hanson, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Interpreting and predicting the spread of invasive wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Marta A. Jarzyna, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

A quantitative RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of Eurasianlineage H10 subtype influenza A virus, Hailiang Sun, Jian-Li Xue, Elizabeth Bailey, Yifei Xu, Guoliang Hu, John A. Baroch, Yi Zhang, Lanny Pace, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Historical and Current Population Trends of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) in the New York Bight, USA, Brian E. Washburn, Susan B. Elbin, and Christina Davis

Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs, Brian E. Washburn, Ryan M. Swearingin, Craig K. Pullins, and Matthew E. Rice

Repellent application strategy for wild rodents and cottontail rabbits, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Roger A. Baldwin, and Gary W. Witmer

Multi-Isotopic (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) Tracing of Molt Origin for Red-Winged Blackbirds Associated with Agro-Ecosystems, Scott J. Werner, Keith A. Hobson, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg, and Justin W. Fischer

Puerto Rican Amazon Amazona vittata, T. White, R. M. Engeman, and V. Anadon

No filters, no fridges: a method for preservation of water samples for eDNA analysis, Kelly E. Williams, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Design of a Self-Resetting, Low-Maintenance, Long-Term Bait Station for Rodent Control, Gary W. Witmer and Rachael S. Moulton

Evaluation of a Food Bait Block for Potential Chemical Delivery to Black-tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), Gary W. Witmer, Rachael S. Moulton, and Jenna L. Swartz

Retention time of chlorophacinone in black-tailed prairie dogs informs secondary hazards from a prairie dog rodenticide bait, Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Evaluation of Harvest Indices for Monitoring Cougar Survival and Abundance, Michael L. Wolfe, Eric M. Gese, Pat Terletzky, David C. Stoner, and Lise M. Aubry

Limited Antigenic Diversity in Contemporary H7 Avian-Origin Influenza A Viruses from North America, Yifei Xu, Elizabeth Bailey, Erica Spackman, Tao Li, Hui Wang, Li-Ping Long, John A. Baroch, Fred L. Cunningham, Xiaoxu Lin, Richard G. Jarman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Modifying M-44s to Reduce Risk of Activation by Swift Fox, Julie K. Young


Evaluating and validating abundance monitoring methods in the absence of populations of known size: review and application to a passive tracking index, Lee R. Allen and Richard M. Engeman

Modeling the cost of bird strikes to US civil aircraft, Aaron M. Anderson, David S. Carpenter, Michael J. Begier, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents, A. M. Anderson and S. A. Shwiff

Impacts of colonial waterbirds on vegetation and potential restoration of island habitats, Christopher R. Ayers, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Sadie O'Dell, Charles D. Lovell, Michael L. Jones, Jason R. Suckow, and Brian S. Dorr

Impact Of Capture And Transportation Methods On Survival Of Small Rodents During Relocation Events, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, Holly E. Jantz, and Gary W. Witmer

Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens, John A. Baroch, Carl A. Gagnon, Sonia Lacouture, and Marcelo Gottschalk

A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes, James C. Beasley, Todd C. Atwood, Michael E. Byrne, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Ecological Role of Vertebrate Scavengers, James C. Beasley, Zach H. Olson, and Travis L. Devault

Evaluation of Rhodamine B as a Biomarker for Assessing Bait Acceptance in Wild Pigs, James Beasley, Sarah C. Webster, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and Fred L. Cunningham

Boa Constrictor, Are R. Berentsen, Juan G. Garcia-Cancel, Edna M. Diaz-Negron, Oscar A. Diaz-Marrero, Alberto R. Puente-Rolón, Robert N. Reed, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

BOA CONSTRICTOR (Boa Constrictor), Are R. Berentsen, Juan G. Garcia-Cancel, Edna M. Diaz-Negron, Oscar A. Diaz-Marrero, Alberto R. Puente-Rolón, Robert N. Reed, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Exposure to Rabies in Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) from Two Regions in Puerto Rico, Are R. Berentsen, Shylo R. Johnson, Amy T. Gilbert, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Capillaria hepatica infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) on Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory, Are R. Berentsen, Scott Vogt, Antenor N. Guzman, Daniel S. Vice, William C. Pitt, Aaron B. Shiels, and Terry R. Spraker

Seasonal Shifts in Diet and Gut Microbiota of the American Bison (Bison bison), Gaddy T. Bergmann, Joseph Craine, Michael S. Robeson, and Noah Fierer

Serological Investigation of Heartland Virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) Exposure in Wild and Domestic Animals Adjacent to Human Case Sites in Missouri 2012–2013, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Nicholas A. Panella, J. Jeffrey Root, Tom Gidlewski, R. Ryan Lash, Jessica R. Harmon, Kristen L. Burkhalter, Marvin S. Godsey, Harry M. Savage, William L. Nicholson, Nicholas Komar, and Aaron C. Brault

Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival, Dan L. Campbell, Richard M. Engeman, and James P. Farley

Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates associated with starling–livestock interactions, James C. Carlson, Doreene R. Hyatt, Kevin Bentler, Anna M. Mangan, Michael Russell, Antoinette J. Piaggio, and George M. Linz

Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica transmission associated with starling–livestock interactions, James C. Carlson, Doreene R. Hyatt, Jeremy W. Ellis, David R. Pipkin, Anna M. Mangan, Michael Russell, Denise S. Bolte, Richard M. Engeman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and George M. Linz

Assessment of variation of nest survival for grassland birds due to method of nest discovery, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. Devault, Guiming Wang, and James A. Martin

Spatiotemporal Dynamics in Identification of Aircraft–Bird Strikes, Tara J. Conkling, James A. Martin, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. Devault

Carnivore incidents with U.S. civil aircraft, Alexander R. Crain, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. DeVault

Assessment of Population Structure of Coyotes in East-Central Alabama using Microsatellite DNA, Dalinda L. Damm, James B. Armstrong, Wendy M. Arjo, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Cowbird responses to aircraft with lights tuned to their eyes: Implications for bird–aircraft collisions, Megan S. Doppler, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Influence of Simulated Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, Predation on Multiple-batch Production of Channel Catfish,Ictalurus punctatus, Brian S. Dorr and Carole R. Engle

Shared genetic diversity across the global invasive range of the monk parakeet suggests a common restricted geographic origin and the possibility of convergent selection, Pim Edelaar, Severine Roques, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Michael L. Avery, Michael A. Russello, Juan C. Senar, Timothy F. Wright, Martina Carrete, and José L. Tella

LEPTODEIRA SEPTENTRIONALIS (Northern Cat-eyed Snake), Richard M. Engeman and Carrie Engeman

Spatially Explicit Modeling of Blackbird Abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region, Greg M. Forcey, Wayne E. Thogmartin, George M. Linz, Patrick C. McKann, and Shawn M. Crimmins

Tick-borne Diseases in Syntopic Populations of Fallow Deer (Dama dama) and Axis Deer (Axis axis) in Northern Mexico, Zeferino García-Vázquez, J. Alfonso Ortega-S., Antonio Cantu-Covarruvias, Juan Mosqueda, David G. Hewitt, Randall W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, and Fred C. Bryant

Managing hybridization of a recovering endangered species: The red wolf Canis rufus as a case study, Eric M. Gese, Fred F. Knowlton, Jennifer R. Adams, Karen Beck, Todd K. Fuller, Dennis L. Murray, Todd D. Steury, Michael K. Stoskopf, Will T. Waddell, and Lisette P. Waits

Using the “placeholder” concept to reduce genetic introgression of an endangered carnivore, Eric M. Gese and Patricia A. Terletzky

Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala, Amy T. Gilbert, Lauren Greenberg, David Moran, Marlon Alvarado, Daniel L. Garcia, and Leonard Peruski

Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercialmodified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala, Amy T. Gilbert, Lauren Greenberg, David Moran, Danilo Alvarez, Marlon Alvarado, Daniel L. Garcia, and Leonard Peruski

RABIES SURVEILLANCE AMONG BATS IN TENNESSEE, USA, 1996–2010, Amy T. Gilbert, Gary F. McCracken, Lorinda L. Sheeler, Lisa I. Muller, Dorcas O'Rourke, William J. Kelch, and John C. New Jr.