The mission of USDA APHIS Wildlife Services (WS) is to provide Federal leadership and expertise to resolve wildlife conflicts to allow people and wildlife to coexist. WS conducts program delivery, research, and other activities through its Regional and State Offices, the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) and its Field Stations, as well as through its National Programs.

This site contains publications of WS or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


Efficacy of Ontario Rabies Vaccine Baits (ONRAB) against rabies infection in raccoons, Amy Gilbert, Shylo Johnson, Nikki Walker, Chad Wickham, Alex Beath, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Assessing bird avoidance of high-contrast lights using a choice test approach: implications for reducing human-induced avian mortality, Benjamin Goller, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, Patrice E. Baumhardt, and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Detection of Inflammation via Volatile Cues in Human Urine, Amy R. Gordon, Bruce A. Kimball, Kimmo Sorjonen, Bianka Karshikoff, John Axelsson, Mats Lekander, Johan N. Lundstrom, and Mats J. Olsson

Evaluating an Alleged Mimic of the Monarch Butterfly: Neophasia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) Butterflies are Palatable to Avian Predators, Dale A. Halbritter, Johnalyn M. Gordon, Kandy L. Keacher, Michael L. Avery, and Jaret C. Daniels

Assessing the potential impacts of a changing climate on the distribution of a rabies virus vector, Mark A. Hayes and Antoinette J. Piaggio


Invasion ecology of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in Florida, USA: the role of humans in the expansion and colonization of an invasive wild ungulate, Felipe A. Hernandez, Brandon M. Parker, Cortney L. Pylant, Timothy J. Smyser, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Stacey L. Lance, Michael P. Milleson, James D. Austin, and Samantha M. Wisely

Feral Goats and Sheep, Steven C. Hess, Dirk H. Van Vuren, and Gary W. Witmer

Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers, Jacob E. Hill, Travis L. DeVault, James C. Beasley, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and Jerrod L. Belant

Roads do not increase carrion use by a vertebrate scavenging community, Jacob E. Hill, Travis L. DeVault, James C. Beasley, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and Jerrold L. Belant

Valuing the absence of feral swine in the United States: A partial equilibrium approach, J. J. Holderieath, D. L. Pendell, J. C. Hadrich, A. Anderson, C. Slootmaker, E. Harper, and S. A. Shwiff

Trace element concentrations in the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) from Hawaii, USA, Sawako Horai, Yusuke Nakashima, Kanae Nawada, Izumi Watanabe, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shintaro Abe, Fumio Yamada, and Robert Sugihara

Pharmacokinetics of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Target and Non-target Organisms, Katherine Horak, Penny M. Fisher, and Brian M. Hopkins

Assessment of zinc phosphide bait shyness and tools for reducing flavor aversions, Katherine Horak, N. M. Hofmann, and B. A. Kimball

Modeling the distributions of tegu lizards in native and potential invasive ranges, Catherine S. Jarnevich, Mark A. Hayes, Lee A. Fitzgerald, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Bryan G. Falk, Michelle A. M. Collier, Lea R. Bonewell, Page E. Klug, Sergio Naretto, and Robert N. Reed

Assessing Ecological and Social Outcomes of a Bear-Proofing Experiment, Heather Johnson, David L. Lewis, Stacy A. Lischka, and Stewart W. Breck

Feral swine Sus scrofa: a new threat to the remaining breeding wetlands of the Vulnerable reticulated flatwoods salamander Ambystoma bishopi, Kelly C. Jones, Thomas A. Gorman, Brandon K. Rincon, John Allen, Carola A. Haas, and Richard M. Engeman

Neutralizing antibodies against flaviviruses, Babanki virus, and Rift Valley fever virus in Ugandan bats, Rebekah C. Kading, Robert M. Kityo, Eric C. Mossel, Erin M. Borland, Teddie Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Jeremy P. Ledermann, Nicholas A. Panella, Amy T. Gilbert, Mary B. Crabtree, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Jonathan S. Towner, Brian R. Amman, Tara K. Sealy, Stuart T. Nichol, Ann M. Powers, Julius J. Lutwama, and Barry R. Miller

Foraging behavior of red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) with varying coverage of anthraquinone-based repellent, Brandon K. Kaiser, Mike Ostlie, and Page E. Klug

Social conformity affects experimental measurement of boldness in male but not female monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus), Kaan Kerman, Kathryn E. Sieving, Colette St. Mary, and Michael L. Avery

Estimating stand-level economic impacts of black bear damage to intensively managed forests, Kristina N. Kline, Jimmy D. Taylor, and Anita T. Morzillo

HUMAN–BLACK BEAR CONFLICTS, Carl W. Lackey, Stewart W. Breck, Brian F. Wakeling, and Bryant White

Development and Evaluation of a Bait Station for Selectively Dispensing Bait to Invasive Wild Pigs, Michael Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Joe M. Halseth, John C. Kinsey, Justin A. Foster, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluation of movement behaviors to inform toxic baiting strategies for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa), Michael Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Eric H. VanNatta, Heather N. Sanders, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

The effect of wildfire on population dynamics for two native small mammal species in a coastal heathland in Queensland, Australia, Adam C. Liedloff, John C. Wilson, and Richard M. Engeman

Genetic evidence supports sporadic and independent introductions of subtype H5 low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry in North America, Lei Li, Andrew S. Bowman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Mary L. Killian, Scott Krauss, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Mia Kim Torchetti, Andrew M. Ramey, Andrew B. Reeves, David E. Stallknecht, Richard J. Webby, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Evolutionary pathway for the 2017 emergence of a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus among domestic poultry in Tennessee, United States, Lei Li, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Mary L. Killian, Mia K. Torchetti, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Development of on-shore behavior among polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea: inherited or learned?, Kate M. Lillie, Eric M. Gese, Todd C. Atwood, and Sarah A. Sonsthagen


European Starlings, George M. Linz, Ron J. Johnson, and James Thiele

A conceptual model for the integration of social and ecological information to understand human-wildlife interactions, Stacy A. Lischka, Tara L. Teel, Heather E. Johnson, Sarah E. Reed, Stewart Breck, Andrew Don Carlos, and Kevin R. Crooks

Estimating densities for sympatric kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) and coyotes (Canis latrans) using noninvasive genetic sampling, R. C. Lonsinger, P. M. Lukacs, E. M. Gese, R. N. Knight, and L. P. Waits

An assessment of the US endangered species act recovery plans: using physiology to support conservation, Jessica L. Mahoney, Page E. Klug, and Wendy L. Reed

Spatial processes decouple management from objectives in a heterogeneous landscape: predator control as a case study, Peter J. Mahoney, Julie K. Young, Kent R. Hersey, Randy T. Larsen, Brock R. McMillan, and David C. Stoner

A molecular analysis to assess codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) predation by orchard birds, Anna M. Mangan, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Matthew W. Hopken, Scott J. Werner, and Liba Pejchar

Post‑fledging movement and spatial ecology of the endangered Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres), Francis R. Martens, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Colleen T. Downs, and Jan A. Venter

Fertility control for managing free-roaming feral cattle in Hong Kong, Giovanna Massei, Ka-Kei Koon, Siu-Iun Law, Matt Gomm, Darcy S. O. Mora, Rebecca Callaby, Kate Palphramand, and Douglas C. Eckery

Experimental and modeled thermoregulatory costs of repeated sublethal oil exposure in the Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, Paul D. Mathewson, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Warren P. Porter, Steven J. Bursian, Karen M. Dean, Kate Healy, Katherine Horak, Jane E. Link, K. E. Harr, and Brain S. Dorr

Molecular Population Structure for Feral Swine in the United States, Blake E. McCann, Timothy J. Smyser, Brandon S. Schmit, Robert A. Newman, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Mathew J. Malek, Seth R. Swafford, Richard A. Sweitzer, and Rebecca B. Simmons

Variation in inbreeding rates across the range of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): Insights from over 30 years of monitoring data, Mark P. Miller, Susan M. Haig, Eric D. Forsman, Robert G. Anthony, Lowell Diller, Katie M. Dugger, Alan B. Franklin, Tracy L. Fleming, Scott Gremel, Damon B. Lesmeister, Mark Higley, Dale R. Herter, and Stan G. Sovern

Cytokine contributions to alterations of the volatile metabolome induced by inflammation, Patrick Millet, Maryanne Opiekun, Talia Martin, Gary K. Beauchamp, and Bruce A. Kimball

Consistent individual behavior: evidence of personality in black bears, Patrick J. Myers and Julie K. Young

Post-release activity and habitat selection of rehabilitated black bears, Patrick J. Myers and Julie K. Young

Habitat type and structure affect trap capture success of an invasive snake across variable densities, Melia G. Nafus, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Page E. Klug, and Gordon H. Rodda

A New Tool in Feral Swine Management: Sodium Nitrite, Jeanine Neskey and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Visual cues for woodpeckers: light reflectance of decayed wood varies by decay fungus, Sean T. O'Daniels, Dylan C. Kesler, Jeanne D. Mihail, Elisabeth B. Webb, and Scott J. Werner

Seasonal variation in preference dictates space use in an invasive generalist, Kelsey E. Paolini, Bronson K. Strickland, Jessica L. Tegt, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Garrett M. Street

Feminization of Male Brown Treesnake Methyl Ketone Expression via Steroid Hormone Manipulation, M. Rockwell Parker, Saumya M. Patel, Jennifer E. Zachry, and Bruce A. Kimball

Antibody evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus detected in sera collected from feral swine (Sus scrofa) across the United States, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Anthony R. Mustante, Timonthy S. White, James D. Freye II, and Thomas Gidlewski

Raccoon (Procyon lotor) biomarker and rabies antibody response to varying oral rabies vaccine bait densities in northwestern Pennsylvania, Kerri Pedersen, Brandon S. Schmit, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Jason R. Suckow, Amy J. Davis, Dennis Slate, Richard B. Chipman, Robert L. Hale, and Amy T. Gilbert

Civil airports from a landscape perspective: A multi-scale approach with implications for reducing bird strikes, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Jason D. Kougher, and Travis L. DeVault

Quantification of avian hazards to military aircraft and implications for wildlife management, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Travis L. DeVault

Efficacy of Avian Radar Systems for Tracking Birds on the Airfield of a Large International Airport, Adam C. Phillips, Siddhartha Majumdar, Brian E. Washburn, David Mayer, Ryan M. Swearingin, Edwin E. Herricks, Travis L. Guerrant, Scott F. Beckerman, and Craig K. Pullins

Mitigation Translocation of Red-Tailed Hawks to Reduce Raptor–Aircraft Collisions, Craig K. Pullins, Travis L. Guerrant, Scott F. Beckerman, and Brian E. Washburn

Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America, Andrew M. Ramey, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Yohannes Berhane, David E. Swayne, and David E. Stallknecht

Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicity to Non-target Wildlife Under Controlled Exposure Conditions, Barnett A. Rattner and F. Nicholas Mastrota

Interactions between the invasive Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl, and the local mosquito community in Florida, USA, Lawrence E. Reeves, Kenneth L. Krysko, Michael L. Avery, Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, Akito Y. Kawahara, C. Roxanne Connelly, and Phillip E. Kaufman

Island Fox Spatial Ecology and Implications for Management of Disease, Jessica R. Resnik, William F. Andelt, Thomas R. Stanley, and Nathan P. Snow

Assessing the utility of metabarcoding for diet analyses of the omnivorous wild pig (Sus scrofa), Michael S. Robeson II, Kamil Khanipov, George Golovko, Samantha M. Wisely, Michael D. White, Michael J. Bodenchuck, Timothy J. Smyser, Yuriy Fofanov, Noah Fierer, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Cottontail rabbits shed clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, J. Jeffrey Root, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Nicole L. Marlenee, and Richard A. Bowen

Viral shedding of clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses by American robins, J. Jeffrey Root, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Nicole L. Marlenee, and Richard A. Bowen

Clinostomum poteae n. sp. (Digenea: Clinostomidae), in the trachea of a double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus Lesson, 1831 and molecular data linking the life-cycle stages of Clinostomum album Rosser, Alberson, Woodyard, Cunningham, Pote & Griffin, 2017 in Mississippi, USA, Thomas G. Rosser, Wes A. Baumgartner, Neely R. Alberson, Travis W. Noto, Ethan T. Woodyard, D. Tommy King, David J. Wise, and Matt J. Griffin

Detection of Viruses from Bioaerosols Using Anion Exchange Resin, Joshua W. Schaeffer, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Margaret Davidson, Sheryl L. Magzamen, Alma Perez-Mendez, Stephen J. Reynolds, Lawrence D. Goodridge, John Volckens, Alan B. Franklin, Susan A. Shriner, and Bledar Bisha

American black bear den-site selection and characteristics in an urban environment, Toryn L. J. Schafer, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, David L. Lewis, Kenneth R. Wilson, Julie S. Mao, and Thomas L. Day

It takes two: Evidence for reduced sexual conflict over parental care in a biparental canid, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Parental habituation to human disturbance over time reduces fear of humans in coyote offspring, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Rachel M. Santymire, and Jill M. Mateo

Mitochondrial genome of an Allegheny Woodrat (Neotoma magister), Mandy Schofield, Joseph Duchamp, Jeffery L. Larkin, Timothy J. Smyser, and Jacqueline M. Doyle

Behavioral and spatial responses of captive coyotes to human activity, Jeffrey T. Schultz and Julie K. Young


Falcons using orchard nest boxes reduce fruit-eating bird abundances and provide economic benefits for a fruit-growing region, Megan E. Shave, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Julie L. Elser, and Catherine A. Lindell

Diets of Kauai’s invasive rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri): evidence of seed predation and dispersal in a human-altered landscape, Aaron B. Shiels, William P. Bukoski, and Shane R. Siers

Invasive Rats (Rattus sp.), but not always Mice (Mus musculus), are Ubiquitous at All Elevations and Habitats within the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels and Gabriela E. Ramirez de Arellano

Estimating the economic impact of canine rabies to Viet Nam 2005–2014, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Vienna R. Brown, Thu Trang Dao, Julie Elser, Hoang Xuan Trung, Nguyen Ngoc Tien, Nguyen Thi Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Karina Ernst, Steven Shwiff, and David Payne

Cost–benefit analysis of controlling rabies: placing economics at the heart of rabies control to focus political will, Stephanie A. Shwiff, J. L. Elser, K. H. Ernst, S. S. Shwiff, and A. M. Anderson

Economics of Invasive Species Damage and Damage Management, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Steven S. Shwiff, Jason Holderieath, William Haden-Chomphosy, and Aaron M. Anderson

Behavioral differences following ingestion of large meals and consequences for management of a harmful invasive snake: A field experiment, Shane R. Siers, Amy A. Yackel Adams, and Robert N. Reed

Potential secondary poisoning risks to non-targets from a sodium nitrite toxic bait for invasive wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Justin A. Foster, Eric H. VanNatta, Katherine E. Horak, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Exposure of a population of invasive wild pigs to simulated toxic bait containing biomarker: implications for population reduction, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael P. Glow, Eric H. VanNatta, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Rustin T. Tabor, Bruce R. Leland, Linton D. Staples, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Regional-Based Mitigation to Reduce Wildlife–Vehicle Collisions, Nathan P. Snow, Zhen Zhang, Andrew O. Finley, Brent A. Rudolph, William F. Porter, David M. Williams, and Scott R. Winterstein

Chemical composition of glandular secretions from a pair-living monogamous primate: Sex, age, and gland differences in captive and wild owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), Andrea Spence-Aizenberg, Bruce A. Kimball, Lawrence E. Williams, and Eduardo Fernandez-Duque

Evaluation of the palatability and toxicity of candidate baits and toxicants for mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus), Robert T. Sugihara, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, and Cynthia G. Payne

BOOK REVIEW, Jimmy D. Taylor

The Role of Dog Population Management in Rabies Elimination—A Review of Current Approaches and Future Opportunities, Louise H. Taylor, Ryan M. Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M. Lindenmayer, Douglas C. Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, and Louis H. Nel

Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Wildlife: Concluding Remarks, Nico W. van den Brink, John E. Elliot, Richard F. Shore, and Barnett A. Rattner

Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Wildlife: Introduction, Nico W. van den Brink, John E. Elliott, Richard F. Shore, and Barnett A. Rattner

State Management of Human– Wildlife Conflicts, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Daniel Hirchert, and Scott Hygnstrom

Persistent Spillback of Bovine Tuberculosis From White-Tailed Deer to Cattle in Michigan, USA: Status, Strategies, and Needs, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, and Henry Campa III

Phase 2 Wildlife Management - Addressing Invasive and Overabundant Wildlife: The White-tailed Deer Continuum and Invasive Wild Pig Example, Kurt Vercauteren, Amy Davis, and Kim Pepin

Intercanine width measurements to aid predation investigations: a comparison between sympatric native and non-native carnivores in the Mexican wolf recovery area, Tana Verzuh, David L. Bergman, Scott C. Bender, Maggie Dwire, and Stewart W. Breck

Perspectives on Existing and Potential New Alternatives to Anticoagulant Rodenticides and the Implications for Integrated Pest Management, Gary W. Witmer

A Cage Efficacy Study of Sodium Nitrite Formulations for Rodent Control, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael Moulton, and Celeste Samura

Cage efficacy study of an experimental rodenticide using wild-caught house mice, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael Moulton, and Celeste Samura

Conclusions, Challenges, and Research Needs, Gary W. Witmer, William C. Pitt, and James C. Beasley

Introduction, Gary W. Witmer, William C. Pitt, and James C. Beasley

Ecology, Impacts, and Management of Invasive Rodents in the United States, Gary W. Witmer and Aaron B. Shiels


Bad dog: feral and free-roaming dogs as agents of conflict, Julie K. Young, D. L. Bergman, and M. Ono

Experimental tests of nonsurgical reproductive inhibitors to prevent coyote reproduction, Julie K. Young, Marjorie J. MacGregor, Eric M. Gese, and Douglas C. Eckery

Tissue tropisms opt for transmissible reassortants during avian and swine influenza A virus co-infection in swine, Xiaojian Zhang, Hailiang Sun, Fred L. Cunningham, Lei Li, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Matthew W. Hopken, Jim Cooley, Li-Ping Long, John A. Baroch, Tao Li, Brandon S. Schmit, Xiaoxu Lin, Alicia K. Olivier, Richard G. Jarman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan


Determination of 20, 25-diazacholesterol in avian matrices by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, Benjamin G. Abbo, Laura E. Hulslander, and David A. Goldade