National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

4101 LaPorte Avenue
Fort Collins, CO 80521
tel: (970) 266-6000 fax: (970) 266-6032

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


Education is not a panacea for reducing human–black bear conflicts, Alia M. Dietsch, Kristina M. Slagle, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Stewart W. Breck, and Lana M. Ciarniello

Survival and habitat selection of Canada Geese during autumn and winter in metropolitan Chicago, USA, Brett E. Dorak, MIchael P. Ward, Michael W. Eichholz, Brian E. Washburn, Timothy P. Lyons, and Heath M. Hagy

The Rise of Double-Crested Cormorants, Brian S. Dorr and Dave Fielder

Double-Crested Cormorants: Too Much of a Good Thing?, Brian S. Dorr and David G. Fielder

Using pentosidine and hydroxyproline to predict age and sex in an avian species, Brian S. Dorr, Randal S. Stahl, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, and Carol A. Furcolow

Control of invasive rats on islands and priorities for future action, Quiterie Duron, Aaron B. Shiels, and Eric Vidal

Use of fecal volatile organic compound analysis to discriminate between nonvaccinated and BCG-Vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal S. Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Jacek A. Koziel

Inventory of wildlife use of mortality pits as feeding sites: implications of pathogen exposure, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner, Hailey E. McLean, Lauren Petersen, and J. Jeffrey Root

Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Chipman, Dennis Slate, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Amy T. Gilbert

Study design concepts for inferring functional roles of mammalian top predators, Richard M. Engeman, Lee R. Allen, and Benjamin L. Allen

Prevalence of feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites over a large landscape in Florida, Richard M. Engeman, Joseph S. Meyer, and John B. Allen

Addressing the Gender Gap in Distinguished Speakers at Professional Ecology Conferences, Cooper M. Farr, Sara P. Bombaci, Travis Gallo, Anna M. Mangan, Hannah L. Riedl, Lani T. Stinson, Kate Wilkins, Drew E. Bennett, Theresa Nogeire-McRae, and Liba Pejchar

Restricted cross-scale habitat selection by American beavers, Robert A. Francis, Jimmy D. Taylor, Eric Dibble, Bronson Strickland, Vanessa M. Petro, Christine Easterwood, and Guiming Wang

Space use and social ecology of coyotes (Canis latrans) in a high-elevation ecosystem: relative stability in a changing environment, Suzanne J. Gifford, Eric M. Gese, and Robert R. Parmenter

Movement of Hypophthalmichthys DNA in the Illinois River Watershed by the Double-Crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Michael P. Guilfoyle, Heather L. Farrington, Richard F. Lance, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Brian S. Dorr, and Richard A. Fischer

Seasonal effects of wind conditions on migration patterns of soaring American white pelican, Javier Gutierrez Illan, Guiming Wang, Fred L. Cunningham, and D. Tommy King

Seasonal effects of wind conditions on migration patterns of soaring American white pelican, Javier Gutierrez Illan, Guiming Wang, Fred L. Cunningham, and D. Tommy King

Weathered MC252 crude oil-induced anemia and abnormal erythroid morphology in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) with light microscopic and ultrastructural description of Heinz bodies, K. E. Harr, Fred L. Cunningham, Chris A. Pritsos, Karen L. Pritsos, Thivanka Muthumalage, Brian S. Dorr, Katherine E. Horak, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Karen M. Dean, Dave Cacela, Andrew K. McFadden, Jane E. Link, Katherine A. Healy, Pete Tuttle, and Steven J. Bursian

Organ weights and histopathology of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) dosed orally or dermally with artificially weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 crude oil, K. E. Harr, Drury R. Reavill, Steven J. Bursian, Dave Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, Karen M. Dean, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kate Healy, Katherine E. Horak, Jane E. Link, Susan A. Shriner, and Robert E. Schmidt

Dermal exposure to weathered MC252 crude oil results in echocardiographically identifiable systolic myocardial dysfunction in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), K. E. Harr, M. Rishniw, T. L. Rupp, D. Cacela, K. M. Dean, B. S. Dorr, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, K. Healy, K. E. Horak, J. E. Link, D. Reavill, S. J. Bursian, and Fred L. Cunningham

Fine-scale assessment of home ranges and activity patterns for resident black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), Amanda E. Holland, Michael E. Byrne, A. Lawrence Bryan, Travis L. DeVault, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and James C. Beasley

Picky eaters are rare: DNA-based blood meal analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species from the United States, Matthew W. Hopken, Bonnie M. Ryan, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Toxic effects of orally ingested oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill on laughing gulls, Katherine E. Horak, Steven J. Bursian, C. K. Ellis, K. M. Dean, J. E. Link, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, F. L. Cunningham, K. E. Harr, C. A. Pritsos, Karen L. Pritsos, Katherine A. Healy, Dave Cacela, and S. A. Shriner

Bird use of grain fields and implications for habitat management at airports, Raymond B. Iglay, Bruce N. Buckingham, Thomas W. Seamans, James A. Martin, Bradley F. Blackwell, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. DeVault

An evaluation of the use of pentosidine as a biomarker for ageing turtles, John B. Iverson, Randal S. Stahl, Carol Furcolow, and Fred Kraus

High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) on eastern Hawai`i Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (Rattus spp.), Susan I. Jarvi, Stefano Quarta, Steven Jacquier, Kathleen Howe, Denzi Bicakci, Crystal Dasalla, Noelle Lovesy, Kirsten Snook, Robert McHugh, and Chris N. Niebuhr

Human development and climate affect hibernation in a large carnivore with implications for human–carnivore conflicts, Heather E. Johnson, David L. Lewis, Tana L. Verzuh, Cody F. Wallace, Rebecca M. Much, Lyle K. Willmarth, and Stewart W. Breck

Quantifying drivers of wild pig movement across multiple spatial and temporal scales, Shannon L. Kay, Justin W. Fischer, Andrew J. Monaghan, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler A. Campbell, Susan M. Cooper, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Steve B. Hartley, John C. Kilgo, Samantha M. Wisely, A. Christy Wyckoff, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Kim M. Pepin

Effects of scale of movement, detection probability, and true population density on common methods of estimating population density, David A. Keiter, Amy J. Davis, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Fred L. Cunningham, John C. Kilgo, Kim M. Pepin, and James C. Beasley

Development of known-fate survival monitoring techniques for juvenile wild pigs (Sus scrofa), David A. Keiter, John C. Kilgo, Mark A. Vukovich, Fred L. Cunningham, and James C. Beasley

Development of known-fate survival monitoring techniques for juvenile wild pigs (Sus scrofa), David A. Keiter, John C. Kilgo, Mark A. Vukovich, Fred L. Cunningham, and James C. Beasley

Temporal Development of Gut Microbiota in Triclocarban Exposed Pregnant and Neonatal Rats, Rebekah C. Kennedy, Russell R. Fling, Michael S. Robeson, Arnold M. Saxton, Robert L. Donnell, John L. Darcy, David A. Bemis, Jiang Liu, Ling Zhao, and Jiangang CHen

Winter and Summer Home Ranges of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) Captured at Loafing Sites in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Justin W. Fischer, Bronson K. Strickland, W. David Walter, Fred L. Cunningham, and Guiwang Wang

Advances and Environmental Conditions of Spring Migration Phenology of American White Pelicans, D. Tommy King, Guiming Wang, Zhiqiang Yang, and Justin W. Fischer

Evaluating the influence of water developments on the demography and spatial ecology of a rare, desert-adapted carnivore: the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis), Bryan M. Kluever and Eric M. Gese

Influence of free water availability on a desert carnivore and herbivore, Bryan M. Kluever, Eric M. Gese, and Steven J. Dempsey

The Future of Blackbird Management Research, Page E. Klug

An assessment of radiative heating as a thermal treatment for invasive snakes in cargo, Fred Kraus, Randal S. Stahl, and William Pitt

Attractants for wild pigs: current use, availability, needs, and future potential, Michael J. Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Justin W. Fischer, Joe M. Halseth, Eric H. VanNatta, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Reoccurrence of Avian Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Clade in Wild Birds, Alaska, USA, 2016, Dong-Hun Lee, Mia K. Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and David E. Swayne

The effects of demographic, social, and environmental characteristics on pathogen prevalence in wild felids across a gradient of urbanization, Jesse S. Lewis, Kenneth A. Logan, Mat W. Alldredge, Scott Carver, Sarah N. Bevins, Michael Lappin, Sue VandeWoude, and Kevin R. Crooks

Bayesian model-based age classification using small mammal body mass and capture dates, Nathaneal Lichti, Kenneth F. Kellner, Timothy J. Smyser, and Scott A. Johnson

History of Regulations, Policy, and Research Related to Conflicts between Blackbirds and People, George M. Linz, Michael L. Avery, and Richard A. Dolbeer

Strategies for Evading Blackbird Damage, George M. Linz and Page E. Klug

Ecology and Management of Red-Winged Blackbirds, George M. Linz, Page E. Klug, and Richard A. Dolbeer

The roles of habitat and intraguild predation by coyotes on the spatial dynamics of kit foxes, Robert C. C. Lonsinger, Eric M. Gese, Larissa L. Bailey, and Lisette P. Waits

Uncovering behavioural states from animal activity and site fidelity patterns, Peter J. Mahoney and Julie K. Young

Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production, Anna M. Mangan, Liba Pejchar, and Scott J. Werner

Ante-mortem detection of chronic wasting disease in recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay: A blinded collaborative study, Sireesha Manne, Naveen Kondru, Tracy Nichols, Aaron Lehmkuhl, Bruce Thomsen, Rodger Main, Patrick Halbur, Somak Dutta, and Anumantha G. Kanthasamy

US feral swine were exposed to both avian and swine influenza A viruses, Brigitte E. Martin, Hailiang Sun, Margaret Carrel, Fred L. Cunningham, John A. Baroch, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Sean G. Young, Brandon S. Schmit, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Mark W. Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, Kelly Lager, Andrew S. Bowman, Richard D. Slemons, David R. Smith, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Bartonella strains from Thai bats, Clifton D. McKee, Michael Y. Kosoy, Ying Bai, Lynn M. Osikowicz, Richard Franka, Amy T. Gilbert, Sumalee Boonmar, Charles E. Rupprecht, and Leonard Peruski

Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination, L. David Mech, Cheryl S. Asa, Margaret Callahan, Bruce W. Christensen, Fran Smith, and Julie K. Young

Cross-species transmission potential between wild pigs, livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans: implications for disease risk management in North America, Ryan S. Miller, Steven J. Sweeney, Chris Slootmaker, Daniel A. Grear, Paul A. Di Salvo, Deborah Kiser, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Towards Canine Rabies Elimination in Cebu, Philippines: Assessment of Health Economic Data, L. M. Miranda, M. E. Miranda, B. Hatch, R. Deray, S. A. Shwiff, M. C. Roces, and C. E. Rupprecht

Rabies Virus Antibodies from Oral Vaccination as a Correlate of Protection against Lethal Infection in Wildlife, Susan M. Moore, Amy Gilbert, Ad Vos, Conrad M. Freuling, Christine K. Ellis, Jeannette Kliemt, and Thomas Müller

Evaluation of antibody response to an adjuvanted hapten-protein vaccine as a potential inhibitor of sexual maturation for farmed Atlantic salmon, Darcy S.O. Mora, Mo D. Salman, Christopher A. Myrick, Jack C. Rhyan, Lowell A. Miller, Ellen Marie Sætre, and Douglas C. Eckery

Demographic and temporal variations in immunity and condition of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the southern Beaufort Sea, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Patricia A. Terletzky, Todd C. Atwood, Eric M. Gese, Geoffrey D. Smith, Sydney Greenfield, John Pettit, and Susannah S. French

Functional visual sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and its influence on foraging substrate selection, Sean T. O'Daniels, Dylan C. Kesler, Jeanne D. Mihail, Elisabeth B. Webb, and Scott J. Werner

Coyote removal: can the short-term application of a controversial management tool improve female greater sage-grouse survival or nest success?, Elizabeth K. Orning and Julie K. Young

Identification of Brucella spp. in feral swine (Sus scrofa) at abattoirs in Texas, USA, Kerri Pedersen, N. E. Bauer, S. Olsen, A. M. Arenas-Gamboa, A. C. Henry, T. D. Sibley, and T. Gidlewski

LIMITED ANTIBODY EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN FERAL SWINE (SUS SCROFA) IN THE USA, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Theodore D. Anderson, Kristy L. Pabilonia, Jonathan R. Lewis, Rebecca L. Mihalco, Christian Gortazar, and Thomas Gidlewski

Serologic Evidence of Various Arboviruses Detected in White Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States, Kerri Pedersen, Eryu Wang, Scott C. Weaver, Paul C. Wolf, Adam R. Randall, Kyle R. Van Why, Amelia P.A. Travassos da Rosa, and Thomas Gidlewski

Evidence of leptospirosis in the kidneys and serum of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States, K. K. Pedersen, T. D. Anderson, S. N. Bevins, K. L. Pabilonia, P. N. Whitley, D. R. Virchow, and T. Gidlewski

Potential effects of incorporating fertility control into typical culling regimes in wild pig populations, Kim M. Pepin, Amy J. Davis, Fred L. Cunningham, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Douglas C. Eckery

Predicting spatial spread of rabies in skunk populations using surveillance data reported by the public, Kim M. Pepin, Amy J. Davis, Daniel G. Streicker, Justin W. Fischer, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Amy T. Gilbert

Efficiency of different spatial and temporal strategies for reducing vertebrate pest populations, Kim M. Pepin, Amy J. Davis, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Comment on: ‘Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore’, Kim M. Pepin, Shannon L. Kay, and Amy J. Davis

Comment on: ‘Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore’, Kim M. Pepin, Shannon L. Kay, and Amy J. Davis

Inferring infection hazard in wildlife populations by linking data across individual and population scales, Kim M. Pepin, Shannon L. Kay, Ben D. Golas, Susan A. Shriner, Amy T. Gilbert, Ryan S. Miller, Andrea L. Graham, Steven Riley, Paul C. Cross, Michael D. Samuel, Mevin B. Hooten, Jennifer A. Hoeting, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Colleen T. Webb, and Michael G. Buhnerkempe

Using risk prediction models and species sensitivity maps for large-scale identification of infrastructure-related wildlife protection areas: The case of bird electrocution, Juan Manuel Pérez-García, Travis L. DeVault, Francisco Botella, and José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata

Genetic demography at the leading edge of the distribution of a rabies virus vector, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Amy L. Russell, Ignacio A. Osorio, Alejandro Jiménez Ramírez, Justin W. Fischer, Jennifer L. Neuwald, Annie E. Tibbels, Luis Lecuona, and Gary F. McCracken

Is It Time for Synthetic Biodiversity Conservation?, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Gernot Segelbacher, Philip J. Seddon, Luke Alphey, Elizabeth L. Bennett, Robert H. Carlson, Robert M. Friedman, Dona Kanavy, Ryan Phelan, Kent H. Redford, Marina Rosales, Lydia Slobodian, and Keith Wheeler

The persistence of multiple strains of avian influenza in live bird markets, Amy Pinsent, Kim M. Pepin, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan, Michael T. White, and Steven Riley

Coyote (Canis latrans) diet in an urban environment: variation relative to pet conflicts, housing density, and season, S. A. Poessel, E. C. Mock, and S. W. Breck

Dietary intake of Deepwater Horizon oil-injected live food fish by doublecrested cormorants resulted in oxidative stress, Karen L. Pritsos, Cristina R. Perez, Thivanka Muthumalage, Karen M. Dean, Dave Cacela, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, Fred L. Cunningham, S. J. Bursian, Jane E. Link, Susan A. Shriner, Katherine E. Horak, and C. A. Pritsos

LIVESTOCK GUARDING DOGS TODAY: POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO PERCEIVED LIMITATIONS, Silvia Ribeiro, Jenny Dornig, Ana Guerra, Jasna Jeremic, Jean-Marc Landry, Daniel Mettler, Vicente Palacios, Ueli Pfister, Simone Ricci, Robin Rigg, Valeria Salvatori, Sider Sedefchev, Elena Tsingarska, Linda van Bommel, Luisa Vielmi, Julie K. Young, and Margherita Zingaro

Differential impacts of wildfire on the population dynamics of an old-forest species, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Alan B. Franklin, and Peter C. Carlson

Transmission of H6N2 wild bird-origin influenza A virus among multiple bird species in a stacked-cage setting, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Alan B. Franklin

Low viral doses are sufficient to infect cottontail rabbits with avian influenza A virus, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Heather J. Sullivan

Clinostomum album n. sp. and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), parasites of the great egret Ardea alba L. from Mississippi, USA, Thomas G. Rosser, Neely R. Alberson, Ethan T. Woodyard, Fred L. Cunningham, Linda M. Pote, and Matt J. Griffin

Clinostomum album n. sp. and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), parasites of the great egret Ardea alba L. from Mississippi, USA, Thomas G. Rosser, Neely R. Alberson, Ethan T. Woodyard, Fred L. Cunningham, Linda M. Pote, and Matt J. Griffin

The 17th Rocky Mountain Virology Association Meeting, Joel Rovnak, Rushika Perera, Matthew W. Hopken, Jenna Read, Derrick M. Waller, and Randall J. Cohrs

Investigation of techniques to measure cortisol and testosterone concentrations in coyote hair, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Efficacy of an Acoustic Hailing Device as an Avian Dispersal Tool, Peter E. Schlichting, Amanda E. Holland, James C. Beasley, Albert L. Bryan, Robert A. Kennamer, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Using species distribution models to define nesting habitat of the eastern metapopulation of double-crested cormorants, Kate L. Sheehan, Samuel T. Esswein, Brian S. Dorr, Greg K. Yarrow, and Ron J. Johnson

The influence of geographical location, host maturity and sex on intestinal helminth communities of the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus from the eastern United States, K. L. Sheehan, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, Brian S. Dorr, G. K. Yarrow, and R. J. Johnson

Sudden appearance and population outbreak of Eunica monima (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on Desecheo Island, Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels, William P. Haines, Kirsty J. Swinnerton, Susan Silander, Cielo Figuerola-Hernández, David Will, Juan G. García-Cancel, and Christian W. Torres-Santana

Shifts in an invasive rodent community favoring Black rats (Rattus rattus) following restoration of native forest, Aaron B. Shiels, Arthur Medeiros, and Erica I. von Allmen

The Economic Impact of Blackbird Damage to Crops, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karina L. Ernest, Samantha L. Degroot, Aaron M. Anderson, and Steven S. Shwiff

Ontogenetic and ecological variation in invasion risk of Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, Shane R. Siers, Julie A. Savidge, and Robert N. Reed

Quantile regression of microgeographic variation in population characteristics of an invasive vertebrate predator, Shane R. Siers, Julie A. Savidge, and Robert N. Reed

Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach, Jonathan M. Sleeman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Natalie Nguyen

Different prey resources suggest little competition between non-native frogs and insectivorous birds despite isotopic niche overlap, Robyn L. Smith, Karen H. Beard, and Aaron B. Shiels

Comparison of a Micro-Neutralization Test with the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for Measuring Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies, Todd G. Smith and Amy T. Gilbert


Development of Toxic Bait to Control Invasive Wild Pigs and Reduce Damage, Nathan P. Snow, Justin A. Foster, John C. Kinsey, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Strength Testing of Raccoons and Invasive Wild Pigs for a Species-Specific Bait Station, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Strength Testing of Raccoons and Invasive Wild Pigs for a Species-Specific Bait Station, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Adaptation of the Aesop’s Fable paradigm for use with raccoons (Procyon lotor): considerations for future application in non‑avian and non‑primate species, Lauren Stanton, Emily Davis, Shylo Johnson, Amy T. Gilbert, and Sarah Benson-Amram

Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho, Suzanne A. Stone, Stewart W. Breck, Jesse Timberlake, Peter M. Haswell, Fernando Najera, Brian S. Bean, and Daniel J. Thornhill