The mission of USDA APHIS Wildlife Services (WS) is to provide Federal leadership and expertise to resolve wildlife conflicts to allow people and wildlife to coexist. WS conducts program delivery, research, and other activities through its Regional and State Offices, the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) and its Field Stations, as well as through its National Programs.

This site contains publications of WS or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


Surgical sterilization impacts on behavior of coyote pairs, Tyler Leary, Jeffrey T. Schultz, and Julie K. Young

H7N1 Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses in Poultry in the United States During 2018, Dong-Hun Lee, Mary Lea Killian, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Xiu-Feng Wan, Li Lei, David E. Swayne, and Mia Kim Torchetti

Impact of COVID-19 on the US and Texas Economy: A General Equilibrium Approach, Lirong Liu, Steven S. Shwiff, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Maryfrances Miller

Welfare Performance of Three Foothold Traps for Capturing North American River Otters Lontra canadensis, Matthew J. Lovallo, H. B. White, J. D. Erb, M. S. Peek, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Potential Use for Serosurveillance of Feral Swine to Map Risk for Anthrax Exposure, Texas, USA, Rachel M. Maison, Courtney F. Pierce, Izabela K. Ragan, Vienna R. Brown, Michael J. Bodenchuk, Richard A. Bowen, and Angela M. Bosco-Lauth

Rooting Out Genetic Structure of Invasive Wild Pigs in Texas, Anna M. Mangan, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Michael J. Bodenchuk, Courtney F. Pierce, and Timothy J. Smyser

Using object-based image analysis to detect laughing gull nests, Benjamin F. Martini and Douglas A. Miller

Distilling Professional Opinion to Gauge Vulnerability of Guam Avifauna to Brown Treesnake Predation, Robert M. McElderry, Eben H. Paxton, Andre V. Nguyen, and Shane R. Siers

Estimation of wildlife damage from federal crop insurance data, Sophie McKee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Aaron M. Anderson

Social media as a window into human-wildlife interactions and zoonotic disease risk: an examination of wild pig hunting videos on YouTube, Hailey E. McLean, Lauren M. Jaebker, Aaron M. Anderson, Tara L. Teel, Alan D. Bright, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Keith M. Carlisle

Understanding tolerance for an invasive species: An investigation of hunter acceptance capacity for wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in Texas, Hailey E. McLean, Tara L. Teel, Alan Bright, Lauren M. Jaebker, John M. Tomecek, Maureen G. Frank, Rachael L. Connally, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Keith M. Carlisle

Differing Alterations of Odor Volatiles among Pathogenic Stimuli, Patrick Millet, Talia Martin, Maryanne Opiekun, Gary K. Beauchamp, and Bruce A. Kimball

Strategic considerations for invasive species managers in the utilization of environmental DNA (eDNA): Steps for incorporating this powerful surveillance tool, Jeffrey Morisette, Stanley Burgiel, Kelsey Brantley, Wesley M. Daniel, John Darling, Jeanette Davis, Thomas Franklin, Keith Gaddis, Margaret Hunter, Richard Lance, Tracy Leskey, Yale Passamaneck, Antoinette Piaggio, Brian Rector, Adam Sepulveda, Melissa Smith, Carol A. Stepien, and Taylor Wilcox

Threading the needle: How humans influence predator–prey spatiotemporal interactions in a multiple-predator system, Asia Murphy, Duane R. Diefenbach, Mark Ternent, Matt Lovallo, and David Miller

Great Expectations: Deconstructing the Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, and Jimmy Taylor

Powassan Virus Experimental Infections in Three Wild Mammal Species, Nicole M. Nemeth, J. Jeffrey Root, Airn E. Hartwig, Richard A. Bowen, and Angela M. Bosco-Lauth

Strategic testing approaches for targeted disease monitoring can be used to inform pandemic decision-making, James D. Nichols, Tiffany L. Bogich, Emily Howerton, Ottar N. Bjørnstad, Rebecca K. Borchering, Matthew Ferrari, Murali Haran, Christopher Jewell, Kim M. Pepin, William J.M. Probert, Juliet R.C. Pulliam, Michael C. Runge, Michael Tildesley, Cecile Viboud, and Katriona Shea

Detection of two dissimilar chronic wasting disease isolates in two captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis) herds: Two distinctive chronic wasting disease isolates identified in captive elk, Tracy A. Nichols, Eric M. Nicholson, Yihui Liu, Wanyin Tao, Terry R. Spraker, Michael Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Qingzhong Kong, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Variation in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in definitive and intermediate hosts in Hawaii, a global hotspot of rat lungworm disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, and Susan I. Jarvi

Short Term Safety, Immunogenicity, and Reproductive Effects of Combined Vaccination With Anti-GnRH (Gonacon) and Rabies Vaccines in Female Feral Cats, Shiri Novak, Boris Yakobson, Shir Sorek, Liat Morgan, Smadar Tal, Ran Nivy, Roni King, Lauren Jaebker, Douglas C. Eckery, and Tal Raz

Short Term Safety, Immunogenicity, and Reproductive Effects of Combined Vaccination With Anti-GnRH (Gonacon) and Rabies Vaccines in Female Feral Cats, Shiri Novak, Boris Yakobson, Shir Sorek, Liat Morgan, Smadar Tal, Ran Nivy, Roni King, Lauren Jaebker, Douglas C. Eckery, and Tal Raz

Avian visual ecologists should consider UV absorbance and all sensory modalities: A response to Wisenden et al. (2020), Sean T. O'Daniels, Scott J. Werner, and Ken Yasukawa

Population genomics of invasive rodents on islands: Genetic consequences of colonization and prospects for localized synthetic gene drive, Kevin P. Oh, Aaron B. Shiels, Laura Shiels, Dimitri V. Blondel, Karl J. Campbell, J. Royden Saah, Alun L. Lloyd, Paul Q. Thomas, Fred Gould, Zaid Abdo, John R. Godwin, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Nicarbazin as an oral contraceptive in eared doves, Lourdes Olivera, Silvia Pereyra, Georgget Banchero, Guillermo Tellechea, Jorge Sawchik, Michael L. Avery, and Ethel Rodríguez

Factors Influencing Survival Rates of Pronghorn Fawns in Idaho, Brett R. Panting, Eric M. Gese, Mary M. Conner, and Scott Bergen

Using Enclosed Y-Mazes to Assess Chemosensory Behavior in Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, and Amy A. Yackel Adams

The consequences of predators without prey, Mitchell A. Parsons, Thomas M. Newsome, and Julie K. Young

Social structure defines spatial transmission of African swine fever in wild boar, Kim M. Pepin, Andrew J. Golnar, and Tomasz Podgórski

A framework for surveillance of emerging pathogens at the human-animal interface: Pigs and coronaviruses as a case study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, and Mark Q. Wilber

Responses of turkey vultures to unmanned aircraft systems vary by platform, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Bruce N. Buckingham, Joshua L. Hoblet, and Patrice E. Baumhardt

Environmental DNA for conservation, Antoinette J. Piaggio

Sex and nest type influence avian blood parasite prevalence in a high-elevation bird community, Marina D. Rodriguez, Paul F. Doherty, Antoinette J. Piaggio, and Kathryn P. Huyvaert

Factors leading to successful island rodent eradications following initial failure, Araceli Samaniego, Peter Kappes, Keith Broome, Steve Cranwell, Richard Griffiths, Grant Harper, Pete McClelland, Russell Palmer, Gerard Rocamora, Keith Springer, David Will, and Shane Siers

Contemporary challenges and opportunities for the management of bird damage at field crop establishment, Christophe Sausse, Alice Baux, Michel Bertrand, Elsa Bonnaud, Sonia Canavelli, Alexandra Destrez, Page E. Klug, Lourdes Olivera, Ethel Rodriguez, Guilllermo Tellechea, and Sebastian Zuil

Modeling Mongoose Rabies in the Caribbean: A Model-Guided Fieldwork Approach to Identify Research Priorities, Caroline C. Sauvé, Erin E. Rees, Amy T. Gilbert, Are R. Berentsen, Agathe Allibert, and Patrick A. Leighton

Alfaxalone Successfully Immobilizes Small Indian Mongooses (Urva auropunctata): A Field Report, Caroline C. Sauvé, Yves Rondenay, Are R. Berentsen, Mel J. Rivera-Rodriguez, and Patrick A. Leighton

The evolutionary consequences of human–wildlife conflict in cities, Christopher J. Schell, Lauren Stanton, Julie K. Young, Lisa Angeloni, Joanna E. Lambert, Stewart W. Breck, and Maureen H. Murray

SARS-CoV-2 Exposure in Escaped Mink, Utah, USA, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Influenza A virus surveillance, infection and antibody persistence in snow geese (Anser caerulescens), Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeremy W. Ellis, Kevin T. Bentler, Kaci K. VanDalen, Thomas Gidlewski, and Sarah N. Bevins

Allometric Regression of Snake Body Length from Head Image Measurements, Shane R. Siers

Evaluating lethal toxicant doses for the largest individuals of an invasive vertebrate predator with indeterminate growth, Shane R. Siers, Scott M. Goetz, Rachel M. Volsteadt, and Melia G. Nafus

Deterring non-target birds from toxic bait sites for wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Justin A. Foster, Michael J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Michael P. Glow, Ingrid A. Messer, Seth M. Cook, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Daily and Landscape Influences of Species Visitation to Toxic Bait Sites for Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael P. Glow, Michael Lavelle, Justin Fischer, Eric H. VanNatta, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Anthraquinone repellent seed treatment on corn reduces feeding by wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Scott J. Werner, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Efficacy and risks from a modified sodium nitrite toxic bait for wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Jason Wishart, Justin A. Foster, Linton D. Staples, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Variation in reversal learning by three generalist mesocarnivores, Lauren A. Stanton, Eli S. Bridge, Joost Huizinga, Shylo R. Johnson, Julie K. Young, and Sarah Benson‑Amram

Conflict, coexistence, or both? Cougar habitat selection, prey composition, and mortality in a multiple-use landscape, David C. Stoner, Mark A. Ditmer, Dustin L. Mitchell, Julie K. Young, and Michael L. Wolfe

An Evaluation of Body-grip Trap Trigger Configurations for Reducing River Otter Take Incidental to Beaver Trapping, Alec J. Sundelius, Nicholas Forman, Nathan M. Roberts, Shawn T. Rossler, David B. Ruid, and Robert C. Willging

Evaluating the effects of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) management on conifer stocking in western Oregon, Jimmy D. Taylor and Vanessa M. Petro

A framework to evaluate whether to pool or separate behaviors in a multilayer network, Annemarie van der Marel, Sanjay Prasher, Chelsea Carminito, Claire L. O'Connell, Alexa Phillips, Bryan M. Kluever, and Elizabeth A. Hobson

Measuring adrenal and reproductive hormones in hair from Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus), Marilize Van der Walt, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Patricia A. Terletzky, Todd C. Atwood, Eric M. Gese, and Susannah S. French

Occurrence of mesocarnivores in montane sky islands: How spatial and temporal overlap informs rabies management in a regional hotspot, Amanda M. Veals, John Koprowski, David L. Bergman, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and David B. Wester

Avian Use of Exotic Street Treescapes in Metropolitan Areas of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, and David L. Bergman

Comparing Management Programs to Reduce Red–tailed Hawk Collisions with Aircraft, Brian Washburn, Craig K. Pullins, Travis L. Guerrant, Gregory J. Martinelli, and Scott F. Beckerman

Toxicity of sodium nitrite-based vertebrate pesticides for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, Katherine E. Horak, and Kirt C. VerCauteren

A Sonic Net reduces damage to sunflower by blackbirds (Icteridae): Implications for broad-scale agriculture and crop establishment, Amanda K. Werrell, Page E. Klug, Romuald N. Lipcius, and John P. Swaddle

Best Management Practices for Trapping Furbearers in the United States, H. Bryant White, Gordon R. Batcheller, Edward K. Boggess, Clifford L. Brown, Joseph W. Butfiloski, Thomas A. Decker, John D. Erb, Michael W. Fall, David A. Hamilton, Tim L. Hiller, George F. Hubert Jr., Matthew J. Lovallo, John F. Olson, and Nathan M. Roberts

Surveys for ticks on wildlife hosts and in the environment at Asian longhorned tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis)-positive sites in Virginia and New Jersey, 2018, Seth A. White, Sarah N. Bevins, Mark G. Ruder, David Shaw, Stacey L. Vigil, Adam Randall, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kristen Dominguez, Alec T. Thompson, James W. Mertins, Jeffrey T. Alfred, and Michael J. Yabsley

Invader removal triggers competitive release in a threatened avian predator, J. David Wiens, Katie M. Dugger, J. Mark Higley, Damon B. Lesmeister, Alan B. Franklin, Keith A. Hamm, Gary C. White, Krista E. Dilione, David C. Simon, Robin R. Bown, Peter C. Carlson, Charles B. Yackulic, James D. Nichols, James E. Hines, Raymond J. Davis, David W. Lamphear, Christopher McCafferty, Trent L. McDonald, and Stan G. Sovern

Improving evaluation of nonlethal tools for carnivore management and conservation: evaluating fladry to protect an endangered species from a generalist mesocarnivore, R. M. Windell, L. L. Bailey, J. K. Young, T. M. Livieri, D. A. Eads, and S. W. Breck

Spatial variation in direct and indirect contact rates at the wildlife-livestock interface for informing disease management, Anni Yang, Raoul K. Boughton, Ryan S. Miller, Bethany Wight, Wesley M. Anderson, James C. Beasley, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Kim M. Pepin, and George Wittemyer

Effects of social structure and management on risk of disease establishment in wild pigs, Anni Yang, Peter E. Schlichting, Bethany Wight, Wesley M. Anderson, Sarah M. Chinn, Mark Q. Wilber, Ryan S. Miller, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Kurt C. Vercauteren, George Wittemyer, and Kim M. Pepin

Unprecedented Migratory Bird Die-Off: A Citizen-Based Analysis on the Spatiotemporal Patterns of Mass Mortality Events in the Western United States, Di Yang, Anni Yang, Jue Yang, Rongting Xu, and Han Qiu

Improving animal monitoring using small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) and deep learning networks, Meilun Zhou, Jared A. Elmore, Sathishkumar Samiappan, Kristine O. Evans, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Raymond B. Iglay

Invasive Species in Puerto Rico: The View From El Yunque, Jess Zimmerman, Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, and Aaron B. Shiels


Understanding and Preventing Bird Damage on Dairies, Amber Adams-Progar, Karen Steensma, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Julie L. Elser, Susan Kerr, and Tyler P. Caskin

Competing reproductive and physiological investments in an all‑female lizard, the Colorado checkered whiptail, Lise M. Aubry, Spencer B. Hudson, Bryan M. Kluever, Alison C. Webb, and Susannah S. French

Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monarchus Boddaert, 1783), Michael L. Avery

Control or eradication: Problems in the management of invasive birds, Michael L. Avery and Chris J. Feare

Relationships between survival and habitat suitability of semi- aquatic mammals, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Jimmy Taylor, Kristine O. Evans, Ryo Ogawa, Lance McClintic, and Guiming Wang

Local adaptation constrains drought tolerance in a tropical foundation tree, Kasey E. Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle F. Edwards, Aaron B. Shiels, and Tiffany Knight

Additive and non-additive responses of seedlings to simulated herbivory and drought, Kasey Barton and Aaron B. Shiels

Talking trash in the Big Apple: mitigating bird strikes near the North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre and Brian E. Washburn

Placebo Oral Rabies Vaccine Bait Uptake by Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Southwestern Puerto Rico, Are R. Berentsen, Richard B. Chipman, Kathleen M. Nelson, Kenneth S. Gruver, Frank Boyd, Steven F. Volker, Amy J. Davis, Ad Vos, Steffen Ortmann, and Amy Gilbert

Developing Alternatives to Protect Domestic Sheep from Predation in South Africa, David L. Bergman, Nico L. Avenant, Michael J. Bodenchuk, and Eddie Steenkamp

Predator scent and visual cue applied to nest boxes fail to dissuade European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from nesting, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, and Bruce N. Buckingham

Vampire Bats: Preparing for Range Expansion into the U.S., Michael J. Bodenchuk and David L. Bergman

Technical Limitations Associated With Molecular Barcoding of Arthropod Bloodmeals Taken From North American Deer Species, Erin M. Borland, Daniel A. Hartman, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, and Rebekah C. Kading

Timing and extent of crop damage by wild pigs (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) to corn and peanut fields, C. M. Boyce, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and James C. Beasley

Fish-Eating Birds on Catfish Ponds in the Mississippi Delta, Paul Burr, Jimmy Avery, Garrett Street, Bronson Strickland, and Brian Dorr

Piscivorous Bird Use of Aquaculture and Natural Water Bodies in Mississippi, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy I. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, and Brian S. Dorr

Historic and contemporary use of catfish aquaculture by piscivorous birds in the Mississippi Delta, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy L. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, and Brian S. Dorr

Bird-livestock interactions associated with increased cattle fecal shedding of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli within feedlots in the United States, James C. Carlson, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Bledar Bisha, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, and Thomas E. Wittum

The Role of European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in the Dissemination of Multidrug- Resistant Escherichia coli among Concentrated Animal feeding Operations, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Jennifer E. Anders, Nicolas A. Blouin, James C. Carlson, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, Lawrence D. Goodridge, Baolin Wang, Leslie A. Day, Anna M. Mangan, Dustin A. Reid, Shannon M. Coleman, Matthew W. Hopken, and Bledar Bisha

Validation of a screening method for the detection of colistin-resistant E. coli containing mcr-1 in feral swine feces, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Alan B. Franklin, S. N. Bevins, Kevin T. Bentler, Jonas Bonnedahl, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Bledar Bisha, and Susan A. Shriner

An evaluation of bird and bat mortality at wind turbines in the Northeastern United States, Daniel Y. Choi, Thomas W. Wittig, and Bryan M. Kluever

Cormorant Predation of Commercial Catfish Aquaculture in the Mississippi Delta, Terrel Christie, Brian Dorr, Luke Roy, Anita M. Kelly, Carole Engle, Paul Burr, Brian Davis, and Jonathan van Senten

Using bioenergetics and radar-derived bird abundance to assess the impact of a blackbird roost on seasonal sunflower damage, Bonnie A. Clark, Page E. Klug, Phillip M. Stepanian, and Jeffrey F. Kelly

Invasive Species Control and Resolution of Wildlife Damage Conflicts: A Framework for Chemical and Genetically Based Management Methods, Larry Clark, John Eisemann, John Godwin, Katherine Horak, Kevin Oh, Jeanette R. O'Hare, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Kim M. Pepin, and Emily W. Ruell

Serum chemistry values in wild black vultures in Mississippi, USA, Fred L. Cunningham, Sherman W. Jack, Amanda R. Deese, Eric R. Wengert, Kyle Van Why, Carla L. Huston, Scott Lemmons, and Richard B. Minnis

The Pocatello Supply Depot: A History and Update, Patrick A. Darrow

A comparison of cost and quality of three methods for estimating density for wild pig (Sus scrofa), Amy J. Davis, David A. Keiter, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, C. Slootmaker, Antoinette J. Piaggio, James C. Beasley, and K. M. Pepin

Repellent surface applications for pest birds, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, James C. Carlson, Hailey E. McLean, Caroline S. Olson, and Scott J. Werner

Frontal vehicle illumination via rear-facing lighting reduces potential for collisions with white-tailed deer, Travis L. Devault, Thomas W. Seamans, and Bradley Blackwell

Population increases of large birds in North America pose challenges for aviation safety, Richard A. Dolbeer

Testing a key assumption of using drones as frightening devices: Do birds perceive drones as risky?, Conor C. Egan, Bradley Blackwell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, and Page E. Klug


Evaluating moose Alces alces population response to infestation level of winter ticks Dermacentor albipictus, Daniel D. Ellingwood, Peter J. Pekins, Henry Jones, and Anthony R. Musante

The changing triad of plague in Uganda: invasive black rats (Rattus rattus), indigenous small mammals, and their fleas, Russell E. Enscore, Nackson Babi, Gerald Amatre, Linda Atiku, Rebecca J. Eisen, Kim M. Pepin, Rommelle Vera-Tudela, Christopher Sexton, and Kenneth L. Gage

Review of Ospreys: The Revival of a Global Raptor, by Alan F. Poole. 2019., Lisa Fields and Brian E. Washburn