National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."

2018

Foraging behavior of red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) with varying coverage of anthraquinone-based repellent, Brandon K. Kaiser, Mike Ostlie, and Page E. Klug

Social conformity affects experimental measurement of boldness in male but not female monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus), Kaan Kerman, Kathryn E. Sieving, Colette St. Mary, and Michael L. Avery

Estimating stand-level economic impacts of black bear damage to intensively managed forests, Kristina N. Kline, Jimmy D. Taylor, and Anita T. Morzillo

HUMAN–BLACK BEAR CONFLICTS, Carl W. Lackey, Stewart W. Breck, Brian F. Wakeling, and Bryant White

Development and Evaluation of a Bait Station for Selectively Dispensing Bait to Invasive Wild Pigs, Michael Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Joe M. Halseth, John C. Kinsey, Justin A. Foster, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluation of movement behaviors to inform toxic baiting strategies for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa), Michael Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Eric H. VanNatta, Heather N. Sanders, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

The effect of wildfire on population dynamics for two native small mammal species in a coastal heathland in Queensland, Australia, Adam C. Liedloff, John C. Wilson, and Richard M. Engeman

Genetic evidence supports sporadic and independent introductions of subtype H5 low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry in North America, Lei Li, Andrew S. Bowman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Mary L. Killian, Scott Krauss, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Mia Kim Torchetti, Andrew M. Ramey, Andrew B. Reeves, David E. Stallknecht, Richard J. Webby, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Evolutionary pathway for the 2017 emergence of a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus among domestic poultry in Tennessee, United States, Lei Li, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Mary L. Killian, Mia K. Torchetti, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Development of on-shore behavior among polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea: inherited or learned?, Kate M. Lillie, Eric M. Gese, Todd C. Atwood, and Sarah A. Sonsthagen

ASSESSING OWL COLLISIONS WITH US CIVIL AND US AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT, Kimberly E. Linnell and Brian E. Washburn

European Starlings, George M. Linz, Ron J. Johnson, and James Thiele

A conceptual model for the integration of social and ecological information to understand human-wildlife interactions, Stacy A. Lischka, Tara L. Teel, Heather E. Johnson, Sarah E. Reed, Stewart Breck, Andrew Don Carlos, and Kevin R. Crooks

Estimating densities for sympatric kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) and coyotes (Canis latrans) using noninvasive genetic sampling, R. C. Lonsinger, P. M. Lukacs, E. M. Gese, R. N. Knight, and L. P. Waits

An assessment of the US endangered species act recovery plans: using physiology to support conservation, Jessica L. Mahoney, Page E. Klug, and Wendy L. Reed

Spatial processes decouple management from objectives in a heterogeneous landscape: predator control as a case study, Peter J. Mahoney, Julie K. Young, Kent R. Hersey, Randy T. Larsen, Brock R. McMillan, and David C. Stoner

A molecular analysis to assess codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) predation by orchard birds, Anna M. Mangan, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Matthew W. Hopken, Scott J. Werner, and Liba Pejchar

Post‑fledging movement and spatial ecology of the endangered Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres), Francis R. Martens, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Colleen T. Downs, and Jan A. Venter

Fertility control for managing free-roaming feral cattle in Hong Kong, Giovanna Massei, Ka-Kei Koon, Siu-Iun Law, Matt Gomm, Darcy S. O. Mora, Rebecca Callaby, Kate Palphramand, and Douglas C. Eckery

Experimental and modeled thermoregulatory costs of repeated sublethal oil exposure in the Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, Paul D. Mathewson, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Warren P. Porter, Steven J. Bursian, Karen M. Dean, Kate Healy, Katherine Horak, Jane E. Link, K. E. Harr, and Brain S. Dorr

Molecular Population Structure for Feral Swine in the United States, Blake E. McCann, Timothy J. Smyser, Brandon S. Schmit, Robert A. Newman, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Mathew J. Malek, Seth R. Swafford, Richard A. Sweitzer, and Rebecca B. Simmons

Variation in inbreeding rates across the range of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): Insights from over 30 years of monitoring data, Mark P. Miller, Susan M. Haig, Eric D. Forsman, Robert G. Anthony, Lowell Diller, Katie M. Dugger, Alan B. Franklin, Tracy L. Fleming, Scott Gremel, Damon B. Lesmeister, Mark Higley, Dale R. Herter, and Stan G. Sovern

Cytokine contributions to alterations of the volatile metabolome induced by inflammation, Patrick Millet, Maryanne Opiekun, Talia Martin, Gary K. Beauchamp, and Bruce A. Kimball

Consistent individual behavior: evidence of personality in black bears, Patrick J. Myers and Julie K. Young

Post-release activity and habitat selection of rehabilitated black bears, Patrick J. Myers and Julie K. Young

Habitat type and structure affect trap capture success of an invasive snake across variable densities, Melia G. Nafus, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Page E. Klug, and Gordon H. Rodda

A New Tool in Feral Swine Management: Sodium Nitrite, Jeanine Neskey and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Visual cues for woodpeckers: light reflectance of decayed wood varies by decay fungus, Sean T. O'Daniels, Dylan C. Kesler, Jeanne D. Mihail, Elisabeth B. Webb, and Scott J. Werner

Seasonal variation in preference dictates space use in an invasive generalist, Kelsey E. Paolini, Bronson K. Strickland, Jessica L. Tegt, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Garrett M. Street

Feminization of Male Brown Treesnake Methyl Ketone Expression via Steroid Hormone Manipulation, M. Rockwell Parker, Saumya M. Patel, Jennifer E. Zachry, and Bruce A. Kimball

Antibody evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus detected in sera collected from feral swine (Sus scrofa) across the United States, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Anthony R. Mustante, Timonthy S. White, James D. Freye II, and Thomas Gidlewski

Raccoon (Procyon lotor) biomarker and rabies antibody response to varying oral rabies vaccine bait densities in northwestern Pennsylvania, Kerri Pedersen, Brandon S. Schmit, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Jason R. Suckow, Amy J. Davis, Dennis Slate, Richard B. Chipman, Robert L. Hale, and Amy T. Gilbert

Civil airports from a landscape perspective: A multi-scale approach with implications for reducing bird strikes, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Jason D. Kougher, and Travis L. DeVault

Quantification of avian hazards to military aircraft and implications for wildlife management, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Travis L. DeVault

Efficacy of Avian Radar Systems for Tracking Birds on the Airfield of a Large International Airport, Adam C. Phillips, Siddhartha Majumdar, Brian E. Washburn, David Mayer, Ryan M. Swearingin, Edwin E. Herricks, Travis L. Guerrant, Scott F. Beckerman, and Craig K. Pullins

Mitigation Translocation of Red-Tailed Hawks to Reduce Raptor–Aircraft Collisions, Craig K. Pullins, Travis L. Guerrant, Scott F. Beckerman, and Brian E. Washburn

Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America, Andrew M. Ramey, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Yohannes Berhane, David E. Swayne, and David E. Stallknecht

Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicity to Non-target Wildlife Under Controlled Exposure Conditions, Barnett A. Rattner and F. Nicholas Mastrota

Interactions between the invasive Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl, and the local mosquito community in Florida, USA, Lawrence E. Reeves, Kenneth L. Krysko, Michael L. Avery, Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, Akito Y. Kawahara, C. Roxanne Connelly, and Phillip E. Kaufman

Island Fox Spatial Ecology and Implications for Management of Disease, Jessica R. Resnik, William F. Andelt, Thomas R. Stanley, and Nathan P. Snow

Assessing the utility of metabarcoding for diet analyses of the omnivorous wild pig (Sus scrofa), Michael S. Robeson II, Kamil Khanipov, George Golovko, Samantha M. Wisely, Michael D. White, Michael J. Bodenchuck, Timothy J. Smyser, Yuriy Fofanov, Noah Fierer, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Cottontail rabbits shed clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, J. Jeffrey Root, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Nicole L. Marlenee, and Richard A. Bowen

Viral shedding of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses by American robins, J. Jeffrey Root, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Nicole L. Marlenee, and Richard A. Bowen

Clinostomum poteae n. sp. (Digenea: Clinostomidae), in the trachea of a double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus Lesson, 1831 and molecular data linking the life-cycle stages of Clinostomum album Rosser, Alberson, Woodyard, Cunningham, Pote & Griffin, 2017 in Mississippi, USA, Thomas G. Rosser, Wes A. Baumgartner, Neely R. Alberson, Travis W. Noto, Ethan T. Woodyard, D. Tommy King, David J. Wise, and Matt J. Griffin

Detection of Viruses from Bioaerosols Using Anion Exchange Resin, Joshua W. Schaeffer, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Margaret Davidson, Sheryl L. Magzamen, Alma Perez-Mendez, Stephen J. Reynolds, Lawrence D. Goodridge, John Volckens, Alan B. Franklin, Susan A. Shriner, and Bledar Bisha

American black bear den-site selection and characteristics in an urban environment, Toryn L. J. Schafer, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, David L. Lewis, Kenneth R. Wilson, Julie S. Mao, and Thomas L. Day

It takes two: Evidence for reduced sexual conflict over parental care in a biparental canid, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Parental habituation to human disturbance over time reduces fear of humans in coyote offspring, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Rachel M. Santymire, and Jill M. Mateo

Mitochondrial genome of an Allegheny Woodrat (Neotoma magister), Mandy Schofield, Joseph Duchamp, Jeffery L. Larkin, Timothy J. Smyser, and Jacqueline M. Doyle

Behavioral and spatial responses of captive coyotes to human activity, Jeffrey T. Schultz and Julie K. Young

ENCLOSURE UTILIZATION AND ENRICHMENT STRUCTURE PREFERENCES OF CAPTIVE COYOTES, Jeffrey T. Schultz and Julie K. Young

Falcons using orchard nest boxes reduce fruit-eating bird abundances and provide economic benefits for a fruit-growing region, Megan E. Shave, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Julie L. Elser, and Catherine A. Lindell

Diets of Kauai’s invasive rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri): evidence of seed predation and dispersal in a human-altered landscape, Aaron B. Shiels, William P. Bukoski, and Shane R. Siers

Invasive Rats (Rattus sp.), but not always Mice (Mus musculus), are Ubiquitous at All Elevations and Habitats within the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels and Gabriela E. Ramirez de Arellano

Estimating the economic impact of canine rabies to Viet Nam 2005–2014, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Vienna R. Brown, Thu Trang Dao, Julie Elser, Hoang Xuan Trung, Nguyen Ngoc Tien, Nguyen Thi Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Karina Ernst, Steven Shwiff, and David Payne

Cost–benefit analysis of controlling rabies: placing economics at the heart of rabies control to focus political will, Stephanie A. Shwiff, J. L. Elser, K. H. Ernst, S. S. Shwiff, and A. M. Anderson

Economics of Invasive Species Damage and Damage Management, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Steven S. Shwiff, Jason Holderieath, William Haden-Chomphosy, and Aaron M. Anderson

Behavioral differences following ingestion of large meals and consequences for management of a harmful invasive snake: A field experiment, Shane R. Siers, Amy A. Yackel Adams, and Robert N. Reed

Potential secondary poisoning risks to non-targets from a sodium nitrite toxic bait for invasive wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Justin A. Foster, Eric H. VanNatta, Katherine E. Horak, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Exposure of a population of invasive wild pigs to simulated toxic bait containing biomarker: implications for population reduction, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael P. Glow, Eric H. VanNatta, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Rustin T. Tabor, Bruce R. Leland, Linton D. Staples, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Regional-Based Mitigation to Reduce Wildlife–Vehicle Collisions, Nathan P. Snow, Zhen Zhang, Andrew O. Finley, Brent A. Rudolph, William F. Porter, David M. Williams, and Scott R. Winterstein

Chemical composition of glandular secretions from a pair-living monogamous primate: Sex, age, and gland differences in captive and wild owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), Andrea Spence-Aizenberg, Bruce A. Kimball, Lawrence E. Williams, and Eduardo Fernandez-Duque

Evaluation of the palatability and toxicity of candidate baits and toxicants for mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus), Robert T. Sugihara, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, and Cynthia G. Payne

BOOK REVIEW, Jimmy D. Taylor

The Role of Dog Population Management in Rabies Elimination—A Review of Current Approaches and Future Opportunities, Louise H. Taylor, Ryan M. Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M. Lindenmayer, Douglas C. Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, and Louis H. Nel

Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Wildlife: Concluding Remarks, Nico W. van den Brink, John E. Elliot, Richard F. Shore, and Barnett A. Rattner

Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Wildlife: Introduction, Nico W. van den Brink, John E. Elliott, Richard F. Shore, and Barnett A. Rattner

State Management of Human– Wildlife Conflicts, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Daniel Hirchert, and Scott Hygnstrom

Persistent Spillback of Bovine Tuberculosis From White-Tailed Deer to Cattle in Michigan, USA: Status, Strategies, and Needs, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, and Henry Campa III

Phase 2 Wildlife Management - Addressing Invasive and Overabundant Wildlife: The White-tailed Deer Continuum and Invasive Wild Pig Example, Kurt Vercauteren, Amy Davis, and Kim Pepin

Intercanine width measurements to aid predation investigations: a comparison between sympatric native and non-native carnivores in the Mexican wolf recovery area, Tana Verzuh, David L. Bergman, Scott C. Bender, Maggie Dwire, and Stewart W. Breck

Perspectives on Existing and Potential New Alternatives to Anticoagulant Rodenticides and the Implications for Integrated Pest Management, Gary W. Witmer

A Cage Efficacy Study of Sodium Nitrite Formulations for Rodent Control, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael Moulton, and Celeste Samura

Cage efficacy study of an experimental rodenticide using wild-caught house mice, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael Moulton, and Celeste Samura

Conclusions, Challenges, and Research Needs, Gary W. Witmer, William C. Pitt, and James C. Beasley

Introduction, Gary W. Witmer, William C. Pitt, and James C. Beasley

Ecology, Impacts, and Management of Invasive Rodents in the United States, Gary W. Witmer and Aaron B. Shiels

EVIDENCE OF TWO COCIRCULATING CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS STRAINS IN MESOCARNIVORES FROM NORTHERN COLORADO, USA, Darren J. Wostenberg, Nikki Walker, Karen A. Fox, Terry R. Spraker, Antoinette J. Piaggio, and Amy Gilbert

Bad dog: feral and free-roaming dogs as agents of conflict, Julie Young, D. L. Bergman, and M. Ono

Experimental tests of nonsurgical reproductive inhibitors to prevent coyote reproduction, Julie Young, Marjorie J. MacGregor, Eric M. Gese, and Douglas C. Eckery

Tissue tropisms opt for transmissible reassortants during avian and swine influenza A virus co-infection in swine, Xiaojian Zhang, Hailiang Sun, Fred L. Cunningham, Lei Li, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Matthew W. Hopken, Jim Cooley, Li-Ping Long, John A. Baroch, Tao Li, Brandon S. Schmit, Xiaoxu Lin, Alicia K. Olivier, Richard G. Jarman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

2017

Determination of 20, 25-diazacholesterol in avian matrices by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, Benjamin G. Abbo, Laura E. Hulslander, and David A. Goldade

Reprint of: CYP1A protein expression and catalytic activity in double-crested cormorants experimentally exposed to deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil, Courtney R. Alexander, Michael J. Hooper, Dave Cacela, Kim D. Smelker, Caleshia S. Calvin, Karen M. Dean, Steve J. Bursian, Fred L. Cunningham, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Katherine E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, Jane Link, Susan A. Shriner, and Céline A.J. Godard-Codding

Can we save large carnivores without losing large carnivore science?, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Henrik Andrén, Guy Ballard, Luigi Boitani, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J. S. Fleming, Adam T. Ford, Peter M. Haswell, Rafal Kowalczyk, John D. C. Linnell, L. David Mech, and Daniel M. Parker

Large carnivore science: non-experimental studies are useful, but experiments are better, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Henrik Andrén, Guy Ballard, Luigi Boitani, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J. S. Fleming, Adam T. Ford, Peter M. Haswell, Rafal Kowalczyk, John D. C. Linnell, L. David Mech, and Daniel M. Parker

Wetland Bird Abundance and Safety Implications for Military Aircraft Operations, Kent Andersson, Craig A. Davis, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Jason R. Heinen

Wetland Bird Abundance and Safety Implications for Military Aircraft Operations, Kent Andersson, Craig A. Davis, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Jason R. Heinen

Frightening Devices, Michael L. Avery and Scott J. Werner

Novel and current rodenticides for pocket gopher Thomomys spp. management in vineyards: what works?, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Panmixia and Limited Interspecific Introgression in Coyotes (Canis latrans) from West Virginia and Virginia, USA, Justin H. Bohling, Lauren L. Mastro, Jennifer R. Adams, Eric M. Gese, Sheldon F. Owen, and Lisette P. Waits

Using resident-based hazing programs to reduce human–coyote conflicts in urban environments, Mary Ann Bonnell and Stewart W. Breck

Evaluating lethal and nonlethal management options for urban coyotes, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, and Mary Ann Bonnell

A review of virulent Newcastle disease viruses in the United States and the role of wild birds in viral persistence and spread, Vienna R. Brown and Sarah N. Bevins

Reprint of: Overview of avian toxicity studies for the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment, S. J. Bursian, C. R. Alexander, D. Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, K. M. Dean, B. S. Dorr, C. K. Ellis, Céline A.J. Godard-Codding, C. G. Guglielmo, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, K. E. Harr, K. Healy, Michael J. Hooper, K. E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, L. V. Kennedy, J. E. Link, I. Maggini, J. K. Moye, C. R. Perez, C. A. Pritsos, Susan A. Shriner, K. A. Trust, and P. L. Tuttle

Influence of Precipitation and Crop Germination on Resource Selection by Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in Southwest Colorado, Emily M. Carrollo, Heather E. Johnson, Justin W. Fischer, Matthew Hammond, Patricia D. Dorsey, Charles Anderson, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and W. David Walter

Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method, J. C. Chandler, A. Pérez-Méndez, J. Paar III, M. M. Doolittle, B. Bisha, and L. D. Goodridge

Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method, J. C. Chandler, A. Pérez-Méndez, J. Paar III, M. M. Doolittle, B. Bisha, and L. D. Goodridge

A method for the improved detection of aerosolized influenza viruses and the male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage MS2, J. C. Chandler, J. W. Schaeffer, M. Davidson, S. L. Magzamen, A. Pérez-Méndez, S. J. Reynolds, L. D. Goodridge, J. Volckens, A. B. Franklin, S. A. Shriner, and B. Bisha

Effects of crop type and harvest on nest survival and productivity of dickcissels in semi-natural grasslands, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and James A. Martin

Development of methods for avian oil toxicity studies using the double crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Fred L. Cunningham; Karen Dean; Katie C. Hanson-Dorr; Kendal Harr; Kate Healy; Katherine E. Horak; Jane Link; Susan A. Shriner; Steve J. Bursian; and Brian S, Dorr