National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Clearing muddied waters: Capture of environmental DNA from turbid waters, Kelly E. Williams, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Identifying possible alternative rodenticide baits to replace strychnine baits for pocket gophers in California, Gary W. Witmer, Roger A. Baldwin, and Rachael S. Moulton

Identifying possible alternative rodenticide baits to replace strychnine baits for pocket gophers in California, Gary W. Witmer, Roger A. Baldwin, and Rachael S. Moulton

Compromised Fertility In Free Feeding Of Wildcaught Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) With A Liquid Bait Containing 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide And Triptolide, Gary W. Witmer, Stefanie Raymond-Whish, Rachael S. Moulton, Brandy R. Pyzyna, Elissa M. Calloway, Cheryl A. Dyer, Loretta P. Mayer, and Patricia B. Hoyer

Low-Pathogenic Influenza A Viruses in North American Diving Ducks Contribute to the Emergence of a Novel Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H7N8) Virus, Yifei Xu, Andrew M. Ramey, Andrew S. Bowman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Mary L. Killian, Scott Krauss, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Mia Kim Torchetti, Andrew B. Reeves, Richard J. Webby, David E. Stallknecht, and Xiu-Feng Wan

DiazaCon reduces black-tailed prairie dog reproduction in Colorado, Christi A. Yoder, Richard E. Mauldin, James P. Gionfriddo, Kenneth A. Crane, David A. Goldade, and Richard M. Engeman


Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8

Use of claims data to estimate annual cervical cancer screening percentages in Portland metropolitan area, Oregon, Nasreen Abdullah, Robert S. Laing, Susan Hariri, Collette M. Young, and Sean Schafer

Natality of Yearling Coyotes in West Virginia, G. Albers, J. W. Edwards, R. E. Rogers, and L. L. Mastro

Supplementary feeding and endangered avian scavengers: benefits, caveats, and controversies, Ainara Cortés- Avizanda, Guillermo Blanco, Travis L. Devault, Anil Markandya, Munir Z Virani, Joseph Brandt, and José A Donázar

Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America, Elizabeth Bailey, Li-Ping Long, Nan Zhao, Jeffrey S. Hall, John A. Baroch, Jacqueline Nolting, Lucy Senter, Frederick L. Cunningham, G. Todd Pharr, Larry Hanson, Richard Slemons, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Cholecalciferol plus diphacinone baits for vole control: a novel approach to a historic problem, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Novel and current rodenticides for pocket gopher Thomomys spp. management in vineyards: what works?, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Plant community shifts caused by feral swine rooting devalue Florida rangeland, Brittany Bankovich, Elizabeth Boughton, Raoul Boughton, Michael L. Avery, and Samantha M. Wisely

Bait flavor preference and immunogenicity of ONRAB baits in domestic dogs on the Navajo Nation, Arizona, Are R. Berentsen, Scott Bender, Peggy Bender, David Bergman, Amy T. Gilbert, Hannah M. Rowland, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Widespread detection of highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses in wild birds from the Pacific Flyway of the United States, S. N. Bevins; R. J. Dusek; C. L. White; T. Gidlewski; B. Bodenstein; K. G, Mansfield; P. DeBruyn; D. Kraege; E. Rowan; C. Gillin; B. Thomas; S. Chandler; J. Baroch; B. Schmit; M. J. Grady; R. S. Miller; M. L. Drew; S. Stopak; B. Zscheile; J. Bennett; J. Sengl; Caroline Brady; H. S. Ip; E. Spackman; M. L. Killian; M. K. Torchetti; J. M. Sleeman; and T. J. Deliberto

Effects of visual obstruction, prey resources, and satiety on bird use of simulated airport grasslands, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Kimberly Linnell, Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, and Travis L. DeVault

Cougar Predation Rates and Prey Composition in the Pryor Mountains of Wyoming and Montana, Linsey W. Blake and Eric M. Gese

Resource Selection by Cougars: Influence of Behavioral State and Season, Linsey W. Blake and Eric M. Gese

Report to the Chicago Park District on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2015 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, M.L. Bloomquist, J.W. Hartmann, C.K. Pullins, T.G. Guerrant, S.F. Beckerman, and R.M. Engeman

Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Richard A. Bowen, and ]. Jeffrey Root

Vertebrate Host Susceptibility to Heartland Virus, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Amanda E. Calvert, J. Jeffrey Root, Tom Gidlewski, Brian H. Bird, Richard A. Bowen, Atis Muehlenbachs, Sherif R. Zaki, and Aaron C. Brault

Morphometric Variation during Chick Development in Interior Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Jennifer E. Chastant, Corey T. Callaghan, and D. Tommy King

New Study Underway to Estimate the Impact of Lesser Scaup on Arkansas’ Baitfish Industry, Stephen Clements, Brian Davis, Brian Dorr, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly, and Carole R. Engle

Aquaculture Depredation by Double-Crested Cormorants Breeding in Eastern North America, Elizabeth C. Craig, D. Tommy King, Jed P. Sparks, and Paul D. Curtis

Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions, Amy J. Davis, Mevin B. Hooten, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew L. Farnsworth, Jesse Lewis, Michael Moxcey, and Kim M. Pepin

Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection, Shelagh T. DeLiberto and Scott J. Werner

Tracking a Deadly Virus HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA IN WILD BIRDS, Tom DeLiberto and Gail Keirn

Ecosystem Services Provided by Avian Scavengers, Travis L. DeVault, James C. Beasley, Zachary H. Olson, Marcos Moleón, Martina Carrete, Antoni Margalida, and José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata

Identification of Off Airport Interspecific Avian Hazards to Aircraft, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, and Jerrold L. Belant

Speed Kills: Effects of Vehicle Speed on Avian Escape Behavior, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Reproductive Characteristics of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Eastern United States: Demographic Information for an Intensely Managed Species, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Scott C. Barras, and Travis L. DeVault

The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls, Katie M. Dugger; Eric D. Forsman; Alan B. Franklin; Raymond J. Davis; Gary C. White; Carl J. Schwarz; Kenneth P. Burnham; James D. Nichols; James E. Hines; Charles B. Yackulic; Paul F. Doherty, Jr.; Larissa Bailey; Darren A. Clark; Steven H. Ackers; Lawrence S. Andrews; Benjamin Augustine; Brian L. Biswell; Jennifer Blakesley; Peter C. Carlson; Matthew J. Clement; Lowell V. Diller; Elizabeth M. Glenn; Adam Green; Scott A. Gremel; Dale R. Herter; J. Mark Higley; Jeremy Hobson; Rob B. Horn; Kathryn P. Huyvaert; Christopher McCafferty; Trent McDonald; Kevin McDonnell; Gail S. Olson; Janice A. Reid; Jeremy Rockweit; Viviana Ruiz; Jessica Saenz; and Stan G. Sovern


Economic impacts of bird damage and management in U.S. sweet cherry production, J. L. Elser, A. Anderson, C. A. Lindell, N. Dalsted, A. Bernasek, and S. A. Shwiff

Prioritizing Management and Research Actions against Invasive Reptiles in Florida: A Collaboration by an Expert Panel, Richard Engeman and Michael L. Avery

Photographic estimation of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in the Carpathian Mountains of central Romania, Richard Engeman, Renate Cattaruzza, Marco Cattaruzza, and Justin W. Fischer

Defending against disparate marine turtle nest predators: nesting success benefits from eradicating invasive feral swine and caging nests from raccoons, Richard M. Engeman, David Addison, and J. C. Griffin

Guiding the management of an agricultural pest: Indexing abundance of California meadow voles in artichoke fields, Richard M. Engeman, Roger A. Baldwin, and Denise I. Stetson

Monitoring cryptic amphibians and reptiles in a Florida state park, Richard Engeman, Walter E. Meshaka Jr., Robert Severson, Mary Ann Severson, Greg Kaufman, N. Paige Groninger, and Henry T. Smith

Feral swine damage to globally imperiled wetland plant communities in a significant biodiversity hotspot in Florida, Richard M. Engeman, Steve L. Orzell, Rodney K. Felix, Eric A. Tillman, Gary Killian, and Michael L. Avery

Evaluating a Strategy to Deliver Vaccine to White-tailed Deer at a Landscape Level, Justin W. Fischer, Chad R. Blass, W. David Walter, Charles W. Anderson, Michael J. Lavelle, Wayne H. Hall, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Effects of simulated removal activities on movements and space use of feral swine, Justin W. Fischer, Dan McMurty, Chad R. Blass, W. David Walter, Jeff Beringer, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Chapter 8 Keeping Wildlife Out of Your Food: Mitigation and Control Strategies to Reduce the Transmission Risk of Food-Borne Pathogens, Alan B. Franklin and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluation of an Avian Radar System in a Midwestern Landscape, Michael B. Gerringer, Steven L. Lima, and Travis L. DeVault

Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captiveadult female coyotes (Canis latrans), Eric M. Gese, Beth M. Roberts, and Frederick F. Knowlton

Identification of kill sites from GPS clusters for jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil, Eric M. Gese, Patricia Terletzky, and Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti

Molecular forensics in avian conservation: a DNA‑based approach for identifying mammalian predators of ground‑nesting birds and eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Elizabeth K. Orning, Julie K. Young, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

High Rates of Detection of Clade Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in Wild Birds in the Pacific Northwest During the Winter of 2014–15, Hon S. Ip, Robert J. Dusek, Barbara Bodenstein, Mia Kim Torchetti, Paul DeBruyn, Kristin Mansfield, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Jonathan M. Sleeman

Is there a future for genome-editing technologies in conservation?, J. A. Johnson, R. Altwegg, D. M. Evans, J. G. Ewen, I. J. Gordon, N. Pettorelli, and J. K. Young

Estimates of Small Indian Mongoose Densities: Implications for Rabies Management, Shylo R. Johnson, Are R. Berentsen, Christine Ellis, Amy Davis, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Chapter 3: One Health, One Medicine, Laura H. Kahn, Thomas P. Monath, Bob H. Bokma, E. Paul Gibbs, and A. Alonso Aguirre

Blackbird Damage is an Important Agronomic Factor Influencing Sunflower Production, Hans Kandel and George M. Linz

Optimization of Scat Detection Methods for a Social Ungulate, the Wild Pig, and Experimental Evaluation of Factors Affecting Detection of Scat, David A. Keiter, Fred L. Cunningham, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Brian J. Irwin, and James C. Beasley

Evaluation of boldness assays and associated behavioral measures in a social parrot, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus), Kaan Kerman, Kathryn E. Sieving, Colette S. Mary, and Michael L. Avery

Identification of Robust Microsatellite Markers for Wild Pig Fecal DNA, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Shem D. Unger, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Fred L. Cunningham, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Mary Lea Killian, Mia Kim Torchetti, Nichole Hines, Sam Yingst, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Dong-Hun Lee

Development of artificial bait for brown treesnake suppression, Bruce A. Kimball, Scott A. Sterling, Thomas W. McAuliffe, Randal S. Stahl, Rafael A. Garcia, and William C. Pitt

Alterations of the volatile metabolome in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Bruce A. Kimball, Donald A. Wilson, and Daniel W. Weason

Winter and Summer Home Ranges of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) Captured at Loafing Sites in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Justin W. Fischer, Bronson Strickland, W. David Walter, Fred L. Cunningham, and Guiming Wang

The influence of wildlife water developments and vegetation on rodent abundance in the Great Basin Desert, Bryan M. Kluever, Eric M. Gese, and Steven J. Dempsey

Evaluating wildlife-cattle contact rates to improve the understanding of dynamics of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Michigan, USA, Michael J. Lavelle, Shannon L. Kay, and Kim M. Pepin

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014–2015, Dong-Hun Lee, Justin Bahl, Mia Kim Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Hon S. Ip, Thomas J. Deliberto, and David E. Swayne

Proportions of bird damage in tree fruits are higher in low-fruit-abundance contexts, Catherine A. Lindell, Karen M.M. Steensma, Paul D. Curtis, Jason R. Boulanger, Juliet E. Carroll, Colleen Burrows, David P. Lusch, Nikki L. Rothwell, Shayna L. Wieferich, Heidi M. Henrichs, Deanna K. Leigh, Rachael A. Eaton, and George M. Linz

Plants, prions and possibilities: Current understanding and significance of prion uptake into plants, Tracy A. Nichols

Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease, Tracy A. Nichols, Terry R. Spraker, Thomas Gidlewski, Bruce Cummings, Dana Hill, Qingzhong Kong, and Aru Balachandran

Widespread Detection of Antibodies to Eastern Equine Encephalitis, West Nile, St. Louis Encephalitis, and Turlock Viruses in Various Species of Wild Birds from Across the United States, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Eryu Wang, Gillian Eastwood, Scott C. Weaver, Samuel M. Goldstein, David R. Sinnett, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Disease-emergence dynamics and control in a socially-structured wildlife species, Kim M. Pepin and Kurt C. VerCauteren

A Noninvasive Method to Detect Mexican Wolves and Estimate Abundance, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Chip.A. Cariappa, Dyan J. Straughan, Melissa Neubaum, Margaret Dwire, Paul R. Krausman, Warren B. Ballard, David L. Bergman, and Stewart W. Breck

Environmental factors influencing the occurrence of coyotes and conflicts in urban areas, Sharon A. Poessel, Eric M. Gese, and Julie K. Young

Weak support for disappearance and restricted emergence/persistence of highly pathogenic influenza A in North American waterfowl, Andrew M. Ramey, Erica Spackman, Mia Kim-Torchetti, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Integrating early detection with DNA barcoding: species identification of a nonnative monitor lizard (Squamata: Varanidae) carcass in Mississippi, U.S.A., Robert N. Reed, Matthew W. Hopken, David Steensen, Bryan G. Falk, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Effects of Renewable Energy Production and Infrastructure on Wildlife, José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Miguel Clavero, Martina Carrete, Travis L. DeVault, Virgilio Hermoso, Miguel Angel Losada, María José Polo, Sonia Sánchez-Navarro, Juan Manuel Pérez-García, Francisco Botella, Carlos Ibáñez, and José Antonio Donázar

Olfactory attractants and parity affect prenatal androgens and territoriality of coyote breeding pairs, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Horned lark damage to pre-emerged canola seedlings, William F. Schillinger and Scott J. Werner

Use of predator hair to enhance perceived risk to white-tailed deer in a foraging context, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Kimberly E. Linnell

Susceptibility of rock doves to low-pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Scott R. Stopak, Heather J. Sullivan, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Alan B. Franklin

Evaluation of estimation quality of a general paradigm for indexing animal abundance when observations are counts, Benjamin Shulman, Brandie D. Wagner, Gary K. Grunwald, and Richard M. Engeman

A benefit-cost analysis decision framework for mitigation of disease transmission at the wildlife–livestock interface, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Steven J. Sweeney, Julie L. Elser, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Pauline Nol, Steven S. Shwiff, and Aaron M. Anderson

Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael J. Lavelle, Thomas E. Hanson, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Interpreting and predicting the spread of invasive wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Marta A. Jarzyna, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

A quantitative RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of Eurasianlineage H10 subtype influenza A virus, Hailiang Sun, Jian-Li Xue, Elizabeth Bailey, Yifei Xu, Guoliang Hu, John Baroch, Yi Zhang, Lanny Pace, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Historical and Current Population Trends of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) in the New York Bight, USA, Brian E. Washburn, Susan B. Elbin, and Christina Davis

Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs, Brian E. Washburn, Ryan M. Swearingin, Craig K. Pullins, and Matthew E. Rice

Repellent application strategy for wild rodents and cottontail rabbits, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Roger A. Baldwin, and Gary W. Witmer

Multi-Isotopic (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) Tracing of Molt Origin for Red-Winged Blackbirds Associated with Agro-Ecosystems, Scott J. Werner, Keith A. Hobson, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg, and Justin W. Fischer

Puerto Rican Amazon Amazona vittata, T. White, R. Engeman, and V. Anadon

No filters, no fridges: a method for preservation of water samples for eDNA analysis, Kelly E. Williams, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Retention time of chlorophacinone in black-tailed prairie dogs informs secondary hazards from a prairie dog rodenticide bait, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Design of a Self-Resetting, Low-Maintenance, Long-Term Bait Station for Rodent Control, Gary W. Witmer and Rachael S. Moulton

Evaluation of a Food Bait Block for Potential Chemical Delivery to Black-tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), Gary W. Witmer, Rachael S. Moulton, and Jenna L. Swartz

Evaluation of Harvest Indices for Monitoring Cougar Survival and Abundance, Michael L. Wolfe, Eric M. Gese, Pat Terletzky, David C. Stoner, and Lise M. Aubry

Modifying M-44s to Reduce Risk of Activation by Swift Fox, Julie K. Young


Evaluating and validating abundance monitoring methods in the absence of populations of known size: review and application to a passive tracking index, Lee R. Allen and Richard M. Engeman

Modeling the cost of bird strikes to US civil aircraft, Aaron Anderson, David S. Carpenter, Michael J. Begier, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents, A. Anderson and S. A. Shwiff

Impacts of colonial waterbirds on vegetation and potential restoration of island habitats, Christopher R. Ayers, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Sadie O'Dell, Charles D. Lovell, Michael L. Jones, Jason R. Suckow, and Brian S. Dorr

Impact Of Capture And Transportation Methods On Survival Of Small Rodents During Relocation Events, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, Holly E. Jantz, and Gary W. Witmer

Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens, John A. Baroch, Carl A. Gagnon, Sonia Lacouture, and Marcelo Gottschalk

A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes, James C. Beasley, Todd C. Atwood, Michael E. Byrne, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.