National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."

2016

Development of artificial bait for brown treesnake suppression, Bruce A. Kimball, Scott A. Sterling, Thomas W. McAuliffe, Randal S. Stahl, Rafael A. Garcia, and William C. Pitt

Alterations of the volatile metabolome in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Bruce A. Kimball, Donald A. Wilson, and Daniel W. Weason

Winter and Summer Home Ranges of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) Captured at Loafing Sites in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Justin W. Fischer, Bronson Strickland, W. David Walter, Fred L. Cunningham, and Guiming Wang

The influence of wildlife water developments and vegetation on rodent abundance in the Great Basin Desert, Bryan M. Kluever, Eric M. Gese, and Steven J. Dempsey

Evaluating wildlife-cattle contact rates to improve the understanding of dynamics of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Michigan, USA, Michael J. Lavelle, Shannon L. Kay, and Kim M. Pepin

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014–2015, Dong-Hun Lee, Justin Bahl, Mia Kim Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Hon S. Ip, Thomas J. Deliberto, and David E. Swayne

Proportions of bird damage in tree fruits are higher in low-fruit-abundance contexts, Catherine A. Lindell, Karen M.M. Steensma, Paul D. Curtis, Jason R. Boulanger, Juliet E. Carroll, Colleen Burrows, David P. Lusch, Nikki L. Rothwell, Shayna L. Wieferich, Heidi M. Henrichs, Deanna K. Leigh, Rachael A. Eaton, and George M. Linz

Plants, prions and possibilities: Current understanding and significance of prion uptake into plants, Tracy A. Nichols

Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease, Tracy A. Nichols, Terry R. Spraker, Thomas Gidlewski, Bruce Cummings, Dana Hill, Qingzhong Kong, and Aru Balachandran

Widespread Detection of Antibodies to Eastern Equine Encephalitis, West Nile, St. Louis Encephalitis, and Turlock Viruses in Various Species of Wild Birds from Across the United States, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Eryu Wang, Gillian Eastwood, Scott C. Weaver, Samuel M. Goldstein, David R. Sinnett, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Disease-emergence dynamics and control in a socially-structured wildlife species, Kim M. Pepin and Kurt C. VerCauteren

A Noninvasive Method to Detect Mexican Wolves and Estimate Abundance, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Chip.A. Cariappa, Dyan J. Straughan, Melissa Neubaum, Margaret Dwire, Paul R. Krausman, Warren B. Ballard, David L. Bergman, and Stewart W. Breck

Environmental factors influencing the occurrence of coyotes and conflicts in urban areas, Sharon A. Poessel, Eric M. Gese, and Julie K. Young

Weak support for disappearance and restricted emergence/persistence of highly pathogenic influenza A in North American waterfowl, Andrew M. Ramey, Erica Spackman, Mia Kim-Torchetti, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Integrating early detection with DNA barcoding: species identification of a nonnative monitor lizard (Squamata: Varanidae) carcass in Mississippi, U.S.A., Robert N. Reed, Matthew W. Hopken, David Steensen, Bryan G. Falk, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Effects of Renewable Energy Production and Infrastructure on Wildlife, José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Miguel Clavero, Martina Carrete, Travis L. DeVault, Virgilio Hermoso, Miguel Angel Losada, María José Polo, Sonia Sánchez-Navarro, Juan Manuel Pérez-García, Francisco Botella, Carlos Ibáñez, and José Antonio Donázar

Olfactory attractants and parity affect prenatal androgens and territoriality of coyote breeding pairs, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Horned lark damage to pre-emerged canola seedlings, William F. Schillinger and Scott J. Werner

Use of predator hair to enhance perceived risk to white-tailed deer in a foraging context, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Kimberly E. Linnell

Susceptibility of rock doves to low-pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Scott R. Stopak, Heather J. Sullivan, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Alan B. Franklin

Evaluation of estimation quality of a general paradigm for indexing animal abundance when observations are counts, Benjamin Shulman, Brandie D. Wagner, Gary K. Grunwald, and Richard M. Engeman

A benefit-cost analysis decision framework for mitigation of disease transmission at the wildlife–livestock interface, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Steven J. Sweeney, Julie L. Elser, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Pauline Nol, Steven S. Shwiff, and Aaron M. Anderson

Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael J. Lavelle, Thomas E. Hanson, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Interpreting and predicting the spread of invasive wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Marta A. Jarzyna, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

A quantitative RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of Eurasianlineage H10 subtype influenza A virus, Hailiang Sun, Jian-Li Xue, Elizabeth Bailey, Yifei Xu, Guoliang Hu, John A. Baroch, Yi Zhang, Lanny Pace, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Historical and Current Population Trends of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) in the New York Bight, USA, Brian E. Washburn, Susan B. Elbin, and Christina Davis

Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs, Brian E. Washburn, Ryan M. Swearingin, Craig K. Pullins, and Matthew E. Rice

Repellent application strategy for wild rodents and cottontail rabbits, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Roger A. Baldwin, and Gary W. Witmer

Multi-Isotopic (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) Tracing of Molt Origin for Red-Winged Blackbirds Associated with Agro-Ecosystems, Scott J. Werner, Keith A. Hobson, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg, and Justin W. Fischer

Puerto Rican Amazon Amazona vittata, T. White, R. M. Engeman, and V. Anadon

No filters, no fridges: a method for preservation of water samples for eDNA analysis, Kelly E. Williams, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Design of a Self-Resetting, Low-Maintenance, Long-Term Bait Station for Rodent Control, Gary W. Witmer and Rachael S. Moulton

Evaluation of a Food Bait Block for Potential Chemical Delivery to Black-tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), Gary W. Witmer, Rachael S. Moulton, and Jenna L. Swartz

Retention time of chlorophacinone in black-tailed prairie dogs informs secondary hazards from a prairie dog rodenticide bait, Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Evaluation of Harvest Indices for Monitoring Cougar Survival and Abundance, Michael L. Wolfe, Eric M. Gese, Pat Terletzky, David C. Stoner, and Lise M. Aubry

Limited Antigenic Diversity in Contemporary H7 Avian-Origin Influenza A Viruses from North America, Yifei Xu, Elizabeth Bailey, Erica Spackman, Tao Li, Hui Wang, Li-Ping Long, John A. Baroch, Fred L. Cunningham, Xiaoxu Lin, Richard G. Jarman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Modifying M-44s to Reduce Risk of Activation by Swift Fox, Julie K. Young

2015

Evaluating and validating abundance monitoring methods in the absence of populations of known size: review and application to a passive tracking index, Lee R. Allen and Richard M. Engeman

Modeling the cost of bird strikes to US civil aircraft, Aaron M. Anderson, David S. Carpenter, Michael J. Begier, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents, A. M. Anderson and S. A. Shwiff

Impacts of colonial waterbirds on vegetation and potential restoration of island habitats, Christopher R. Ayers, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Sadie O'Dell, Charles D. Lovell, Michael L. Jones, Jason R. Suckow, and Brian S. Dorr

Impact Of Capture And Transportation Methods On Survival Of Small Rodents During Relocation Events, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, Holly E. Jantz, and Gary W. Witmer

Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens, John A. Baroch, Carl A. Gagnon, Sonia Lacouture, and Marcelo Gottschalk

A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes, James C. Beasley, Todd C. Atwood, Michael E. Byrne, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Ecological Role of Vertebrate Scavengers, James C. Beasley, Zach H. Olson, and Travis L. Devault

Evaluation of Rhodamine B as a Biomarker for Assessing Bait Acceptance in Wild Pigs, James Beasley, Sarah C. Webster, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and Fred L. Cunningham

Boa Constrictor, Are R. Berentsen, Juan G. Garcia-Cancel, Edna M. Diaz-Negron, Oscar A. Diaz-Marrero, Alberto R. Puente-Rolón, Robert N. Reed, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

BOA CONSTRICTOR (Boa Constrictor), Are R. Berentsen, Juan G. Garcia-Cancel, Edna M. Diaz-Negron, Oscar A. Diaz-Marrero, Alberto R. Puente-Rolón, Robert N. Reed, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Exposure to Rabies in Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) from Two Regions in Puerto Rico, Are R. Berentsen, Shylo R. Johnson, Amy T. Gilbert, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Capillaria hepatica infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) on Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory, Are R. Berentsen, Scott Vogt, Antenor N. Guzman, Daniel S. Vice, William C. Pitt, Aaron B. Shiels, and Terry R. Spraker

Seasonal Shifts in Diet and Gut Microbiota of the American Bison (Bison bison), Gaddy T. Bergmann, Joseph Craine, Michael S. Robeson, and Noah Fierer

Serological Investigation of Heartland Virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) Exposure in Wild and Domestic Animals Adjacent to Human Case Sites in Missouri 2012–2013, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Nicholas A. Panella, J. Jeffrey Root, Tom Gidlewski, R. Ryan Lash, Jessica R. Harmon, Kristen L. Burkhalter, Marvin S. Godsey, Harry M. Savage, William L. Nicholson, Nicholas Komar, and Aaron C. Brault

Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival, Dan L. Campbell, Richard M. Engeman, and James P. Farley

Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates associated with starling–livestock interactions, James C. Carlson, Doreene R. Hyatt, Kevin Bentler, Anna M. Mangan, Michael Russell, Antoinette J. Piaggio, and George M. Linz

Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica transmission associated with starling–livestock interactions, James C. Carlson, Doreene R. Hyatt, Jeremy W. Ellis, David R. Pipkin, Anna M. Mangan, Michael Russell, Denise S. Bolte, Richard M. Engeman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and George M. Linz

Assessment of variation of nest survival for grassland birds due to method of nest discovery, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. Devault, Guiming Wang, and James A. Martin

Spatiotemporal Dynamics in Identification of Aircraft–Bird Strikes, Tara J. Conkling, James A. Martin, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. Devault

Carnivore incidents with U.S. civil aircraft, Alexander R. Crain, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. DeVault

Assessment of Population Structure of Coyotes in East-Central Alabama using Microsatellite DNA, Dalinda L. Damm, James B. Armstrong, Wendy M. Arjo, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Cowbird responses to aircraft with lights tuned to their eyes: Implications for bird–aircraft collisions, Megan S. Doppler, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Influence of Simulated Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, Predation on Multiple-batch Production of Channel Catfish,Ictalurus punctatus, Brian S. Dorr and Carole R. Engle

Shared genetic diversity across the global invasive range of the monk parakeet suggests a common restricted geographic origin and the possibility of convergent selection, Pim Edelaar, Severine Roques, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Michael L. Avery, Michael A. Russello, Juan C. Senar, Timothy F. Wright, Martina Carrete, and José L. Tella

LEPTODEIRA SEPTENTRIONALIS (Northern Cat-eyed Snake), Richard M. Engeman and Carrie Engeman

Spatially Explicit Modeling of Blackbird Abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region, Greg M. Forcey, Wayne E. Thogmartin, George M. Linz, Patrick C. McKann, and Shawn M. Crimmins

Tick-borne Diseases in Syntopic Populations of Fallow Deer (Dama dama) and Axis Deer (Axis axis) in Northern Mexico, Zeferino García-Vázquez, J. Alfonso Ortega-S., Antonio Cantu-Covarruvias, Juan Mosqueda, David G. Hewitt, Randall W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, and Fred C. Bryant

Managing hybridization of a recovering endangered species: The red wolf Canis rufus as a case study, Eric M. Gese, Fred F. Knowlton, Jennifer R. Adams, Karen Beck, Todd K. Fuller, Dennis L. Murray, Todd D. Steury, Michael K. Stoskopf, Will T. Waddell, and Lisette P. Waits

Using the “placeholder” concept to reduce genetic introgression of an endangered carnivore, Eric M. Gese and Patricia A. Terletzky

Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala, Amy T. Gilbert, Lauren Greenberg, David Moran, Marlon Alvarado, Daniel L. Garcia, and Leonard Peruski

Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercialmodified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala, Amy T. Gilbert, Lauren Greenberg, David Moran, Danilo Alvarez, Marlon Alvarado, Daniel L. Garcia, and Leonard Peruski

RABIES SURVEILLANCE AMONG BATS IN TENNESSEE, USA, 1996–2010, Amy T. Gilbert, Gary F. McCracken, Lorinda L. Sheeler, Lisa I. Muller, Dorcas O'Rourke, William J. Kelch, and John C. New Jr.

Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls, Jianhua Guo, Ian Tizard, John A. Baroch, H L. Shivaprasad, and Susan L. Payne

Erratum: The socioecology of Monk Parakeets: Insights into parrot social complexity, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Michael L. Avery, and Timothy F. Wright

The effect of social context and social scale on the perception of relationships in monk parakeets, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Darlene J. John, Tiffany L. Mcintosh, Michael L. Avery, and Timonthy F. Wright

Invaded Invaders: Infection of Invasive Brown Treesnakes on Guam by an Exotic Larval Cestode with a Life Cycle Comprised of Non-Native Hosts, Elden T. Holldorf, Shane R. Siers, Jonathan Q. Richmond, Page E. Klug, and Robert N. Reed

Molecular assessment of translocation and management of an endangered subspecies of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Matthew W. Hopken, Tod M. Lum, Paul M. Meyers, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Increased diphacinone and chlorophacinone metabolism in previously exposed wild caught voles, Microtus californicus, Katherine E. Horak, Steven F. Volker, and Christopher M. Campton

Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Rocio Crespo, Paul Kohrs, Paul DeBruyn, Kristin G. Mansfield, Timothy Baszler, Lyndon Badcoe, Barbara Bodenstein, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Mary Lea Killian, Janice C. Pedersen, Nichole Hines, Thomas Gidlewski, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Jonathan M. Sleeman

Human Disturbance and the Physiological Response of Elk in Eastern Washington, D. S. Jachowski, S. McCorquodale, Brian E. Washburn, and Joshua J. Millspaugh

Shifting perceptions of risk and reward: Dynamic selection for human development by black bears in the western United States, H. E. Johnson, S. W. Breck, S. Baruch-Mordo, D. L. Lewis, C. W. Lackey, K. R. Wilson, J. Broderick, J. S. Mao, and J. P. Beckmann

Multi-Trophic Level Feeding Interactions Among Two Native and Two Non-Native Species: Implications for the Endangered Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma bishopi), Kelly C. Jones, Brandon K. Rincon, Thomas A. Gorman, Carola A. Haas, and Richard M. Engeman

POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS, Madison M. Jubirt, Larry A. Hanson, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Lorelei Ford, Scott Lemmons, Paul Fioranelli, and Fred L. Cunningham

Best practice guidelines for rat eradication on tropical islands, B. B. Keitt, R. Griffiths, S. Boudjelas, K. Broome, S. Cranwell, J. Millett, W. Pitt, and A. Samaniego-Herrera

Subtype-specific influenza A virus antibodies in Canada geese (Branta canadensis), Whitney M. Kistler, David E. Stallknecht, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kyle Van Why, and Michael J. Yabsley

Influenza A Virus H5–specific Antibodies in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the USA, Whitney M. Kistler, David E. Stallknecht, Camille Lebarbenchon, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Randy Mickley, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Michael J. Yabsley

Chemical repellents appear non-useful for eliciting exit of brown tree snakes from cargo, Fred Kraus, Randal S. Stahl, and William Pitt

Thermal fumigation provides a simple and effective solution for sanitizing cargo from invasive snakes, Fred Kraus, Randal S. Stahl, and William Pitt

Food Habits of Adult Male White-Tailed Deer Determined by Camera Collars, Michael J. Lavelle, Chad R. Blass, Justin W. Fischer, Scott E. Hygnstrom, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Deer response to exclusion from stored cattle feed in Michigan, USA, Michael J. Lavelle, Henry Campa III, Kyle LeDoux, Patrick J. Ryan, Justin W. Fischer, Kim M. Pepin, Chad R. Blass, Michael P. Glow, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Effects of barred owl (Strix varia) range expansion on Haemoproteus parasite assemblage dynamics and transmission in barred and northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), Krista E. Lewicki, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Lowell V. Diller, and Alan B. Franklin

Animal reactions to oncoming vehicles: a conceptual review, Steven L. Lima, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Limitations of population suppression for protecting crops from bird depredation: A review, George M. Linz, Enrique H. Bucher, Sonia B. Canavelli, Ethel Rodriguez, and Michael L. Avery

Sunflower Bird Pests, George M. Linz and James J. Hanzel

Evaluating the Reliability of Field Identification and Morphometric Classifications for Carnivore Scats Confirmed with Genetic Analysis, Robert C. Lonsinger, Eric M. Gese, and Lisette P. Waits

Network analysis of host–virus communities in bats and rodents reveals determinants of cross-species transmission, Angela D. Luis, Thomas J. O'Shea, David T.S. Hayman, James L.N. Wood, Andrew A. Cunningham, Amy T. Gilbert, James N. Mills, and Colleen T. Webb

Modeling and Mapping the Probability of Occurrence of Invasive Wild Pigs across the Contiguous United States, Meredith L. McClure, Christopher L. Burdett, Matthew L. Farnsworth, Mark W. Lutman, David M. Theobald, Philip D. Riggs, Daniel A. Grear, and Ryan S. Miller

WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODY DECAY RATE IN FREE-RANGING BIRDS, Eileen M. McKee, Edward D. Walker, Tavis K. Anderson, Uriel D. Kitron, Jeffrey D. Brawn, Bethany L. Krebs, Christina Newman, Marilyn O. Ruiz, Rebecca S. Levine, Mary E. Carrington, Robert G. McLean, Tony L. Goldberg, and Gabriel L. Hamer

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and exposure to bats in two rural communities in Guatemala, David Moran, Patricia Juliao, Danilo Alvarez, Kim A. Lindblade, James A. Ellison, Amy T. Gilbert, Brett Petersen, Charles Rupprecht, and Sergio Recuenco

Predator-induced renesting and reproductive effort in indigo buntings: more work for less pay?, Dana L. Morris, John Faaborg, Brian E. Washburn, and Joshua J. Millspaugh

Novel Paramyxoviruses in Bats from Sub-Saharan Africa, 2007–2012, Marinda Mortlock, Ivan V. Kuzmin, Jacqueline Weyer, Amy T. Gilbert, Bernard Agwanda, Charles E. Rupprecht, Louis H. Nel, Teresa Kearney, Jean M. Malekani, and Wanda Markotter

Demographic and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Avian Influenza Infection at the Continental Scale, and in Relation to Annual Life Cycle of a Migratory Host, Rodolfo Nallar, Zsuzsanna Papp, Tasha Epp, Frederick A. Leighton, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Robert J. Dusek, Hon S. Ip, Jeffrey Hall, Yohannes Berhane, Samantha E.J. Gibbs, and Catherine Soos