The mission of USDA APHIS Wildlife Services (WS) is to provide Federal leadership and expertise to resolve wildlife conflicts to allow people and wildlife to coexist. WS conducts program delivery, research, and other activities through its Regional and State Offices, the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) and its Field Stations, as well as through its National Programs.

This site contains publications of WS or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

2001

BEAR BEHAVIOR IN THE VICINITY OF SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING STATIONS IN WESTERN WASHINGTON, Dale L. Nolte, Timothy J. Veenendaal, Georg J. Ziegltrum, and Philipp Fersterer

Non-Target Impacts of Strychnine Baiting to Reduce Pocket Gopher Populations on Forest Lands in the united States, Dale L. Nolte and Kimberly Wagner

Efficacy of Wolfin to Repel Black-Tailed Deer, Dale L. Nolte and Kimberly K. Wagner

IMPACTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING ON THE NUTRITIONAL ECOLOGY OF BLACK BEARS, Steven T. Partridge, Dale L. Nolte, Georg J. Ziegltrum, and Charles T. Robbins

IMPACTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING ON THE NUTRITIONAL ECOLOGY OF BLACK BEARS, Steven T. Partridge, Dale L. Nolte, Georg J. Ziegltrum, and Charles T. Robbins

IMPACT OF BLACKBIRD DAMAGE TO SUNFLOWER BIOENERGETIC AND ECONOMIC MODELS, Brian D. Peer, H. Jeffrey Homan, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

INFREQUENT COWBIRD PARASITISM ON COMMON GRACKLES REVISITED: NEW RECORDS FROM THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS, Brian D. Peer, H. Jeffrey Homan, and Spencer G. Sealy

Density of Prairie Skinks (Eumeces septentrionalis) in Old-field Habitats, William C. Pitt

A New Approach to Understanding Canid Populations Using an Individual-based Computer Model: Preliminary Results, William C. Pitt, Frederick F. Knowlton, and Paul W. Box

Field evaluation of a visual barrier to discourage gull nesting, P. A. Pochop, J.L. Cummings, and R. M. Engeman

Chlorophacinone Residues in Rangeland Rodents: An Assessment of the Potential Risk of Secondary Toxicity to Scavengers, Thomas M. Primus, John D. Eisemann, George H. Matschke, Craig Ramey, and John J. Johnston

Novel Field Sampling Procedure for the Determination of Methiocarb Residues in Surface Waters from Rice Fields, Thomas M. Primus, Dennis J. Kohler, Mike Avery, Pat Bolich, M.O. Way, and John J. Johnston

Determination of 4,4′-Dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the Active Component of the Antifertility Agent Nicarbazin, in Chicken, Duck, and Goose Plasma, Thomas M. Primus, Dennis J. Kohler, Margaret A. Goodall, Christi Yoder, Doreen Griffin, Lowell A. Miller, and John J. Johnston

PATHOLOGY OF BRUCELLOSIS IN BISON FROM YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Jack C. Rhyan, Thomas Gidlewski, Thomas J. Roffe, Keith Aune, L. Michael Philo, and Darla R. Ewalt

USE OF ACETAMINOPHEN FOR LARGE-SCALE CONTROL OF BROWN TREESNAKES, Peter J. Savarie, John A. Shivik, Gary C. White, Jerome C. Hurley, and Larry Clark

USE OF ACETAMINOPHEN FOR LARGE-SCALE CONTROL OF BROWN TREESNAKES, Peter J. Savarie, John A. Shivik, Gary C. White, Jerome C. Hurley, and Larry Clark

LOCAL REMOVAL OF RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS: POTENTIAL FOR BLACKBIRD MANAGEMENT?, Richard . S. Sawin, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Comparison of Primary and Secondary Repellents for Aversive Conditioning of European Starlings, Roger W. Sayre and Larry Clark

EFFECT OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY REPELLENTS ON EUROPEAN STARLINGS: AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT, Roger W. Sayre and Larry Clark

EFFECT OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY REPELLENTS ON EUROPEAN STARLINGS: AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT, Roger W. Sayre and Larry Clark

AVIAN USE OF RIPENING SUNFLOWER FIELDS, Dionn Schaaf, George M. Linz, William J. Bleier, and H. Jeffrey Homan

Evaluation of mirrors to deter nesting starlings, Thomas W. Seamans, Charles D. Lovell, Richard A. Dolbeer, and Jonathon D. Cepek

So You Want to Work with Wolves?, John A. Shivik

The Other Tools For Wolf Management, John A. Shivik

Coyote responses to changing jackrabbit abundance affect sheep predation, L. Charles Stoddart, Richard E. Griffiths, and Frederick F. Knowlton

Comparison of Commercial Deer Repellents, Andy Trent, Dale L. Nolte, and Kimberly Wagner

Inability to Predict Geographic Origin of Yellow-headed Blackbirds, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, During Migration, Daniel J. Twedt, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Management of bird and other wildlife hazards at Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu, Nepal, Bashanta Kumar Upadhyaya and Richard A. Dolbeer

Solid Phase Extraction Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Detector Method for the Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Wildlife Whole Blood, S. A. Volz, J. J. Johnston, and D. L. Griffin

Solid Phase Extraction Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Detector Method for the Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Wildlife Whole Blood, S. A. Volz, J.J. Johnston, and D.L. Griffin

Comparison of active ingredients and delivery systems in deer repellents, Kimberly K. Wagner and Dale L. Nolte

Great Egret Preference for Catfish Size Classes, Scott J. Werner, Mark E. Tobin, and Paul B. Fioranelli

Introduced Wildlife of Oregon and Washington , Gary W. Witmer and Jeffrey C. Lewis

Understanding Vole Problems in Direct Seeding — Strategies for Management, Gary W. Witmer and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Understanding Vole Problems in Direct Seeding-Strategies for Management, Gary W. Witmer and Kurt C. VerCauteren

DEALING WITH NUISANCE AND DEPREDATING BLACK BEARS, Gary W. Witmer and Donald G. Whittaker

A review of the hazards and mitigation for airstrikes from Canada geese in the Anchorage, Alaska bowl, Darryl L. York, Richard M. Engeman, John L. Cummings, Corey L. Rossi, and David R. Sinnett

BLACK BEAR FOREST DAMAGE IN WASHINGTON STATE, USA: ECONOMIC, ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL ASPECTS, Georg J. Ziegltrum and Dale L. Nolte

2000

REPORTING BIAS IN BIRD STRIKES AT JOHN F KENNEDY INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, NEW YORK, 1979-1998, Scott C. Barras and Richard A. Dolbeer

Ornithological Literature, Robert C. Beason

Lethal Control of Piscivorous Birds at Aquaculture Facilities in the Northeast United States: Effects on Populations, Bradley F. Blackwell, Richard A. Dolbeer, and Laura A. Tyson

Overview of a passive tracking index for monitoring wild canids and associated species, Richard M. Engeman and Lee Allen

Standardizing the evaluation of brown tree snake trap designs, Richard M. Engeman and Daniel S. Vice

Integrated management tactics for predicting and alleviating pocket gopher (Thomomys spp.) damage to conifer reforestation plantings, Richard M. Engeman and Gary W. Witmer

Digestibility, Nitrogen Excretion, and Mean Retention Time by North American Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) Consuming Natural Forages, Laura A. Felicetti, Lisa A. Shipley, Gary W. Witmer, and Charles T. Robbins

Captive Great Blue Heron Predation on Farmed Channel Catfish Fingerlings, James F. Glahn, Brian Dorr, and Mark E. Tobin

A Science-Based Initiative to Manage Double-Crested Cormorant Damage to Southern Aquaculture, James F. Glahn, Mark E. Tobin, and Bradley F. Blackwell

Winter Habitat Use and Survival of Female Ring-necked Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in Southeastern North Dakota, H. Jeffrey Homan, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Home Ranges and Habitat Selection of White-Tailed Deer in a Suburban Nature Area in Eastern Nebraska, Scott Hygnstrom and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Changes in coyote activity patterns due to reduced exposure to human persecution, Ann M. Kitchen, Eric M. Gese, and Edward R. Schauster

Long-term spatial stability of coyote (Canis latrans) home ranges in southeastern Colorado, Ann M. Kitchen, Eric M. Gese, and Edward R. Schauster

Mechanical Mouse Lure for Brown Treesnakes, Alexandria C. Lindberg, John A. Shivik, and Larry Clark

Immunocontraception of White-Tailed Deer with GnRH Vaccine, Lowell A. Miller, Brad E. Johns, and Gary J. Killian

Strychnine Alkaloid and Avian Reproduction: Effects Occur at Lower Dietary Concentrations with Mallard Ducks Than with Bobwhite Quail, C. A. Pedersen, R. T. Sterner, and M. J. Goodall

Roles of odor, taste, and toxicity in the food preferences of lambs: implications for mimicry in plants, Frederick D. Provenza, Bruce A. Kimball, and Juan J. Villalba

Seasonal variability in brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) response to lures, John A. Shivik, William G. Wright, and Larry Clark

REPELLENTS TO REDUCE CABLE GNAWING BY WILD NORWAY RATS, Stephen A. Shumake, Ray T. Sterner, and Stanley E. Gaddis

Rodent Mining Engineers, Ray Sterner

Soil-Moisture Preferences and Soil-Use Behaviors of Northern Pocket Gophers, Ray T. Sterner

Sheep-Predation Behaviors of Wild-Caught, Confined Coyotes: Some Historical Data, Ray T. Sterner and Kenneth Crane

Evaluation of a Radar-Activated, Demand-Performance Bird Hazing System, Gwen R. Stevens, Jamie Rogue, Richard Weber, and Larry Clark

Deer Population Management Through Hunting in a Suburban Nature Area in Eastern Nebraska, Kurt C. VerCauteren and Scott E. Hygnstrom

Brown Tree Snake Discoveries During Detector Dog Inspections Following Supertyphoon Paka, Daniel S. Vice and Richard M. Engeman

Evaluation of Hot Sauce® as a Repellent for Forest Mammals, Kimberly K. Wagner and Dale L. Nolte

Cormorant Research and Impacts to Southern Aquaculture, Scott Werner

Integrated Pest Management of Black Bear Reforestation Damage, Gary W. Witmer, Dale L. Nolte, and William Stewart

Urban-Suburban Prairie Dog Management: Opportunities and Challenges, Gary W. Witmer, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Karen Manci, and Donna Dees

Wildlife Strikes: A Growing and Costly Problem for Civil Aviation in the USA, Sandra Wright and Richard Dolbeer

Movements and Distribution of Radio-Collared Canada Geese in Anchorage, Alaska, Darryl York, John Cummings, and Kate Wedemeyer

Evaluation of Flight ControlTM and Mesurol® as Repellents to Reduce Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) Damage to Lettuce Seedlings, Darryl L. York, John L. Cummings, Richard M. Engeman, and James E. Davis Jr.

Hazing and Movements of Canada Geese near Elmendorf Air Force Base in Anchorage, Alaska, Darryl L. York, John L. Cummings, Richard M. Engeman, and Kate L. Wedemeyer

Importance of Migrating Salmon Smolt in Ring-Billed (Larus delawarensis) and California Gull (L. Californicus) Diets Near Priest Rapids Dam, Washington, Darryl L. York, John L. Cummings, John E. Steuber, Patricia A. Pochop, and Christi A. Yoder

Response of Captive Coyotes to Renardine Coyote Repellent, D. E. Zemlicka and J. R. Mason

1999

Alpha-Chloralose Immobilization Of Rock Doves In Ohio, Jerrold L. Belant and Thomas W. Seamans

Aerodrome Bird Hazard Prevention: Case Study At John F. Kennedy International Airport, Richard A. Dolbeer

Quantitation of Pyrethrum Residues in Brown Tree Snakes, John J. Johnston, Carol A. Furcolow, Stephanie A. Volz, Richard E. Mauldin, Thomas M. Primus, Peter J. Savarie, and Joe E. Brooks

METHODS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE 3-CHLORO-p-TOLUIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE POISONING IN BIRDS AND THE ESTIMATION OF SECONDARY HAZARDS TO WILDLIFE, John J. Johnston, Daniel B. Hurlbut, Michael L. Avery, and Jack C. Rhyan

Resource partitioning between coyotes and swift foxes: space, time, and diet, Ann M. Kitchen, Eric M. Gese, and Edward R. Schauster

United States Patent: Naturally-Odoriferous Animal Repellent, James Russell Mason, Richard Albert Dolbeer, and George Preti

Demonstration of Tritrichomonas foetus in the External Genitalia and of Specific Antibodies in Preputial Secretions of Naturally Infected Bulls, J. C. Rhyan, K. L. Wilson, B. Wagner, M. L. Anderson, R. H. Bondurant, D. E. Burgess, G. K. Mutwiri, and L. B. Corbeil

The Feasibility of Controlling the Brown Treesnake in Small Plots, Gordon H. Rodda, Thomas H. Fritts, and Earl W. Campbell III

An Overview of the Biology of the Brown Treesnake* (Boiga irregularis), a Costly Introduced Pest on Pacific Islands, Gordon H. Rodda, Thomas H. Fritts, Michael J. McCoid, and Earl W. Campbell III

Candidate Repellents, Oral and Dermal Toxicants, and Fumigants for Brown Treesnake Control, Peter J. Savarie and Richard L. Bruggers

DOES TALL GRASS REDUCE BIRD NUMBERS ON AIRPORTS?: RESULTS OF PEN TEST WITH CANADA GEESE AND FIELD TRIALS AT TWO AIRPORTS, 1998, Thomas W. Seamans, Richard A. Dolbeer, Mark S. Carrara, and Richard B. Chipman

Ontogenetic Shifts in Canion Attractiveness to Brown Tree Snakes (Boiga irregularis), John A. Shivik and Larry Clark

Repellents to Reduce Cable Gnawing by Northern Pocket Gophers, Stephen A. Shumake, Ray T. Sterner, and Stanley E. Gaddis

Pre-Baiting for Increased Acceptance of Zinc Phosphide Baits by Voles: An Assessment Technique, Ray Sterner

Quality Assurance and the Scientific Method, Ray T. Sterner

Capsicum-Laden Soils Decrease Contact Time by Northern Pocket Gophers, Ray T. Sterner, Kelly Hollenbeck, and Stephen Shumake

Black Bear Damage to Forest Stands in Western Washington, William B. Stewart, Gary W. Witmer, and Gary M. Koehler

Nightly and Seasonal Movements of Boiga irregularis on Guam, Mark Tobin, Robert Sugihara, Patricia Pochop, and Michael Linnell

Changes in Early Winter Abundance of Four Gull (Larus) Species on Western Lake Erie, 1951-1995, Laura A. Tyson, Richard A. Dolbeer, and Jerrod L. Belant

Use of Netted Cage Traps for Capturing White-Tailed Deer, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jeff Beringer, and Scott E. Hygnstrom

Effective of Preventive Coyote Hunting on Sheep Losses to Coyote Predation, Kimberly Wagner and Michael Conover

Impact of Snowfall on the Utah Preventive Aerial Hunting Program, Kimberly K . Wagner and Michael R. Conover

Trapping Considerations for the Fossorial Pocket Gopher, Gary W. Witmer, Rex Marsh, and George Matschke

Field Evaluation of Radiotransmitters for Northern Pocket Gophers, Gary W. Witmer and Michael Pipas

Wildlife-Caused Losses for Producers of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus in 1996, Alice P. Wywialowski

1998

The National Wildlife Research Center: Providing Innovative Solutions to Human–Wildlife Conflicts

DEVELOPMENT OF SEED TREATMENTS TO CONTROL BLACKBIRDS, Michael L. Avery, David Decker, and John S. Humphrey