National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

4101 LaPorte Avenue
Fort Collins, CO 80521
tel: (970) 266-6000 fax: (970) 266-6032

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Comparisons between blackbird damage to corn and sunflower in North Dakota, Megan E. Klosterman, George M. Linz, Anthony Slowik, and H. Jeffrey Homan

A Comparison of Methods for Monitoring Kit Foxes at Den Sites, Bryan M. Kluever, Eric M. Gese, Steven J. Dempsey, and Robert N. Knight

Assessing wolves and cougars as conservation surrogates, Kyran E. Kunkel, T. C. Atwood, T. K. Ruth, Daniel H. Pletscher, and M. G. Hornocker

Characterization of Regionally Associated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in Bobcats (Lynx rufus), Danielle M. Lagana, Justin S. Lee, Jesse S. Lewis, Sarah N. Bevins, Scott Carver, Linda L. Sweanor, Roy McBride, Caleb McBride, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Feral swine brucellosis in the United States and prospective genomic techniques for disease epidemiology, Owen P. Leiser, Joseph L. Corn, Brandon S. Schmit, Paul S. Keim, and Jeffrey T. Foster

Feral cat management, Christopher A. Lepcyzk, Sheila Conant, David Duffy, David M. Bird, Michael Calver, Fern P. Duval, Michael Hutchins, Cheryl A. Lohr, Kerrie Anne Loyd, Peter P. Marra, William C. Pitt, Grant Sizemore, Rachel Sprague, Stanley A. Temple, Yolanda van Heezik, and George Wallace

Demonstration of Avian Control® bird repellent (a.i., methyl anthranilate) for managing blackbird damage to ripening sunflower., George M. Linz and H. Jeffrey Homan

Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where?, Travis Longcore, Catherine Rich, Pierre Mineau, Beau MacDonald, Daniel G. Bert, Lauren M. Sullivan, Erin Mutrie, Sidney A. Gauthreaux Jr., Michael L. Avery, Robert L. Crawford, Albert M. Manville II, Emilie R. Travis, and David Drake

A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?, Angela D. Luis, David T. S. Hayman, Thomas J. O'Shea, Paul M. Cryan, Amy T. Gilbert, Juliet R. C. Pulliam, James N. Mills, Mary E. Timonin, Craig K. R. Willis, Andrew A. Cunningham, Anthony R. Fooks, Charles E. Rupprecht, James L. N. Wood, and Colleen T. Webb

Wildlife Conservation and Alternative Land Uses at Airports, James A. Martin, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Kristin M. Biondi, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Paige M. Schmidt, and Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 11 Wildlife Conservation and Alternative Land Uses at Airports, James A. Martin, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Kristin M. Biondi, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Paige M. Schmidt, and Thomas W. Seamans

Nonsurgical fertility control for managing free-roaming dog populations: A review of products and criteria for field applications, Giovanna Massei and Lowell A. Miller

Efficacy of Electronet Fencing for Excluding Coyotes: A Case Study for Enhancing Production of Black-Footed Ferrets, Marc R. Matchett, Stewart W. Breck, and John Callon

Pheromonal control of the invasive brown treesnake: potency of female sexual attractiveness pheromone varies with ovarian state, Tom Mathies, Breanna Levine, Richard Engeman, and Julie A. Savidge

The use of DiazaCon™ to limit fertility by reducing serum cholesterol in female grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, Brenda A. Mayle, Mark Ferryman, Andrew Peace, Christi A. Yoder, Lowell A. Miller, and David Cowan

TWENTY YEARS OF IMMUNOCONTRACEPTIVE RESEARCH: LESSONS LEARNED, Lowell A. Miller, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, and Douglas C. Eckery

Use of a GnRH vaccine, GonaConTM, for prevention and treatment ofadrenocortical disease (ACD) in domestic ferrets, Lowell A. Miller, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Robert A. Wagner, and Mark Finkler

Is propagule size the critical factor in predicting introduction outcomes in passeriform birds?, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., and Michael L. Avery

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay, Tracy A. Nichols, Terry R. Spraker, Tara D. Rigg, Crystal Meyerett-Reid, Clare Hoover, Brady Michel, Jifeng Bian, Edward Hoover, Thomas Gidlewski, Aru Balachandran, Katherine O'Rourke, Glenn C. Telling, Richard Bowen, Mark D. Zabel, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Open Field Test with Avipel Bird Repellent: Year I, Megan Niner, George Linz, Jeffrey Homan, and Mark Clark


Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Waterbirds in the Rift Valley of Kenya Using Fecal Sampling, Victor O. Ofula, Alan B. Franklin, J. Jeffrey Root, Heather J. Sullivan, Patrick Gichuki, Albina Makio, Wallace Bulimo, Bernard O. Abong'o, Muchane Muchai, and David Schnabel

PSEUDORABIES (AUJESZKY’S DISEASE), Kerri Pedersen and Yvonne Nadler

Large-scale rodent control reduces pre- and post-dispersal seed predation of the endangered Hawaiian lobeliad, Cyanea superba subsp. superba (Campanulaceae), Richard J. Pender, Aaron B. Shiels, Lalasia Bialic-Murphy, and Stephen M. Mosher

Pseudorabies in Feral Swine in the United States, 2009–2012, Kerri Pendersen, Sarah N. Bevins, John A. Baroch, James C. Cumbee Jr., Shannon C. Chandler, Billy S. Woodruff, Troy T. Bigelow, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Molecular phylogeny of an ancient rodent family (Aplodontiidae), Antoinette J. Piaggio, Brett A. Coghlan, Allyson E. Miscampbell, Wendy M. Arjo, Douglas B. Ransome, and Carol E. Ritland

Detecting an elusive invasive species: a diagnostic PCR to detect Burmese python in Florida waters and an assessment of persistence of environmental DNA, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Richard Engeman, Matthew W. Hopken, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, William E. Bruce, and Michael L. Avery


Immunization with a Synthetic Peptide Vaccine Fails to Protect Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Chronic Wasting Disease, John L. Pilon, Jack C. Rhyan, Lisa L. Wolfe, Tracy R. Davis, Matt P. McCollum, Katherine I. O'Rourke, Terry R. Spraker, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Michael W. Miller, Thomas Gidlewski, Tracy A. Nichols, Lowell A. Miller, and Pauline Nol

Patterns of Human–Coyote Conflicts in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Sharon A. Poessel, Stewart W. Breck, Tara L. Teel, Stephanie Shwiff, Kevin R. Crooks, and Lisa Angeloni

Den attendance patterns in swift foxes during pup rearing: varying degrees of parental investment within the breeding pair, Sharon A. Poessel and Eric M. Gese

Graphically Characterizing the Movement of a Rabid Striped Skunk Epizootic Across the Landscape in Northwestern Wyoming, Craig A. Ramey, Kenneth W. Mills, Justin W. Fischer, Robert G. McLean, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, and Richard M. Engeman


West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis, J. Jeffrey Root

Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus Infection in a Desert Cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii) from Colorado, USA, J. Jeffrey Root, Matthew W. Hopken, Thomas Gidlewski, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Anthropogenic and physiologically induced stress responses in captive coyotes, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, and Rachel M. Santymire

Do Native Warm-season Grasslands Near Airports Increase Bird Strike Hazards?, Jason A. Schmidt, Brian E. Washburn, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, and Paige M. Schmidt

Tactile and Auditory Repellents to Reduce Wildlife Hazards to Aircraft, Thomas W. Seamans, James A. Martin, and Jerrold L. Belant

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 4 Tactile and Auditory Repellents to Reduce Wildlife Hazards to Aircraft, Thomas W. Seamans, James A. Martin, and Jerrold L. Belant

Dietary niche differentiation among three species of invasive rodents (Rattus rattus, R. exulans, Mus musculus), Aaron B. Shiels, Caitlin A. Flores, Arthur Khamsing, Paul D. Krushelnycky, Stephen M. Mosher, and Donald R. Drake

Landslides cause spatial and temporal gradients at multiple scales in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels and Lawrence R. Walker

Assignment of measurable costs and benefits to wildlife conservation projects, S. A. Shwiff, A. Anderson, R. Cullen, P. C. L. White, and S. S. Shwiff

Potential economic benefits of eliminating canine rabies, Stephanie Shwiff, Katie Hampson, and Aaron Anderson

Effects of Black-tailed Deer and Roosevelt Elk Herbivory in Intensively Managed Douglas-fir Plantations, Jimmy Taylor

Wildlife in managed forests: An overview of perspectives from the Pacific Northwest, Jimmy D. Taylor

Identifying and Managing Mountain Beaver Damage to Forest Resources, Jimmy Taylor, Donivan Sphar, and OSU Extension forester

Optimizing line intercept sampling and estimation for feral swine damage levels in ecologically sensitive wetland plant communities, Jacob F. Thomas, Richard M. Engeman, Eric Tillman, Justin W. Fischer, Steve L. Orzell, Deborah H. Glueck, Rodney K. Felix, and Michael L. Avery

Influence of vegetation structure on the small mammal community in a shortgrass prairie ecosystem, Craig M. Thompson and Eric M. Gese

New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses, Suxiang Tong, Xueyong Zhu, Yan Li, Mang Shi, Jing Zhang, Melissa Bourgeois, Hua Yang, Xianfeng Chen, Sergio Recuenco, Jorge Gomez, Li-Mei Chen, Adam Johnson, Ying Tao, Cyrille Dreyfus, Wenli Yu, Ryan McBride, Paul J. Carney, Amy T. Gilbert, Jessie Chang, Zhu Guo, Charles T. Davis, James C. Paulson, James Stevens, Charles E. Rupprecht, Edward C. Holmes, Ian A. Wilson, and Ruben O. Donis

West Nile Virus Infection in American Robins: New Insights on Dose Response, Kaci Van Dalen, Jeffrey S. Hall, Larry Clark, Robert G. McLean, and Cynthia Smeraski

Concomitant administration of GonaConTMand rabies vaccine infemale dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico, Fernando Vargas-Pino, Verónica Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Erick J. Canales-Vargas, Luis R. Gress-Ortega, Lowell A. Miller, C. E. Rupprecht, Scott C. Bender, Patricia García-Reyna, Juan Ocampo-López, and Dennis Slate

Excluding Mammals from Airports, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Michael Lavelle, and Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 5 Excluding Mammals from Airports, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Michael Lavelle, and Thomas W. Seamans

Chapter 2 Spatial patterns for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 3 Physical causes and consequences for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 4 Biological consequences for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 5 Biotic interactions and temporal patterns forLandslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 6 Living with landslides for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 7 Large scales and future directions for landslide ecology from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Color Plates from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Glossary from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Index from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Introduction for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Lanslide Ecology: Cover, Contents, Preface, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

References from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Changes in abiotic influences on seed plants and ferns during 18 years of primary succession on Puerto Rican landslides, Lawrence R. Walker, Aaron B. Shiels, Peter J. Bellingham, Ashley D. Sparrow, Ned Fetcher, Fred H. Landau, and Deborah J. Lodge

Topographic Home Range of Large Mammals: Is Planimetric Home Range Still a Viable Method?, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, Teresa J. Frink, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Jonathan A. Jenks, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan, W. D. Walter, J. W. Fischer, C. W. Anderson, D. R. Marks, T. Deliberto, S. Robbe-Austerman, and K. C. VerCauteren

Evolutionary Characterization of the Pandemic H1N1/ 2009 Influenza Virus in Humans Based on Non-Structural Genes, Chengmin Wang, Yanyu Zhang, Bin Wu, Shelan Liu, Ping Xu, Yanmin Lu, Jing Luo, Dale Louis Nolte, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Mingxing Duan, Hong Zhang, and Hongxuan He

Detection of African swine fever virus-like sequences in ponds in the Mississippi Delta through metagenomic sequencing, Xiu-Feng Wan, J. Lamar Barnett, Fred Cunningham, Si Chen, Guohua Yang, Shannon Nash, Li-Pong Long, Lorelei Ford, Sherry Blackmon, Yan Zhang, Larry Hanson, and Qiang He

FORAGING ECOLOGY OF FOUR GULL SPECIES AT A COASTAL–URBAN INTERFACE, Brian E. Washburn, Glen E. Bernhardt, Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, Richard B. Chipman, and Laura C. Francoeur

Wildlife strikes to civil helicopters in the US, 1990–2011, Brian E. Washburn, Paul Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

Managing Turfgrass to Reduce Wildlife Hazards at Airports, Brian E. Washburn and Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 10 Managing Turfgrass to Reduce Wildlife Hazards at Airports, Brian E. Washburn and Thomas W. Seamans

Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys, Scott J. Werner, Richard Buchholz, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. T. Pettit, and Jeremy W. Ellis

Evaluating Habitat Manipulations and Rodenticides to Protect Seedlings from Rodent Damage at Restored Landfills in New York, Gary Witmer

The effects of vitamin K1-rich plant foods on the efficacy of the anticoagulant rodenticides chlorophacinone and diphacinone, used against Montane Voles (Microtus montanus), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Estimating Prion Adsorption Capacity of Soil by BioAssay of Subtracted Infectivity from Complex Solutions (BASICS), A. Christy Wyckoff, Krista L. Lockwood, Crystal Meyerett-Reid, Brady A. Michel, Heather Bender, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Mark D. Zabel

Mutation from arginine to lysine at the position 189 of hemagglutinin contributes to the antigenic drift in H3N2 swine influenza viruses, Jianqiang Ye, Yifei Xu, Jillian Harris, Hailiang Sun, Andrew S. Bowman, Fred Cunningham, Carol Cardona, Kyoungjin J. Yoon, Richard D. Slemons, and Xiu-Feng Wan


Chapter 4: Top-Predators as Biodiversity Regulators: Contemporary Issues Affecting Knowledge and Management of Dingoes in Australia, Benjamin L.R. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Matt Hayward, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew B. Allison, Dennis J. Kohler, Karen A. Fox, Justin D. Brown, Richard W. Gerhold, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Edward J. Dubovi, Colin R. Parrish, and Edward C. Holmes

The Net Benefits of Controlling Bird and Rodent Pests in Wine Grape and Avocado Production, Aaron Anderson, Katy Kirkpatrick, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Economic Evaluation of Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus) Rabies Prevention in Mexico, Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, A. J. Ramırez, Steven Shwiff, Dennis Kohler, and Luis Lecuona

Crow Pellets from Winter Roosts in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Mary Annala, Eric A. Tillman, Gregory A. Backus, Kandy L. Keacher, and Michael L. Avery


Biology of Invasive Monk Parakeets in South Florida, Michael L. Avery, Eric A. Tillman, Kandy L. Keacher, John E. Arnett, and Kelli J. Lundy

Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas (Caribbean tree frog), Karen H. Beard and William C. Pitt

A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Raccoon Abundance: Implications for Disease Vaccination Programs, James C. Beasley, William S. Beatty, Todd C. Atwood, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Carrion cycling in food webs: comparisons among terrestrial and marine ecosystems, James C. Beasley, Z. H. Olson, and T. L. DeVault

Genetic structure of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population inhabiting a fragmented agricultural ecosystem, William S. Beatty, James C. Beasley, Guha Dharmarajan, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

A Novel Isoflurane Anesthesia Induction System for Raccoons, Kevin T. Bentler, Daniel N. Gossett, and J. Jeffrey Root

Survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection in African lion (Panthera leo), African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, Are R. Berentsen, Matthew S. Becker, Heather Stockdale-Walden, Wigganson Matandiko, Rachel McRobb, and Mike R. Dunbar

Influence of Forest Structure on the Abundance of Snowshoe Hares in Western Wyoming, Nathan D. Berg, Eric M. Gese, John Squires, and Lise M. Aubry

Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010, Thomas E. Besser, Margaret A. Highland, Katherine Baker, E. Frances Cassirer, Neil J. Anderson, Jennifer M. Ramsey, Kristin Mansfield, Darren L. Bruning, Peregrine Wolff, Joshua B. Smith, and Jonathan A. Jenks

Yersinia pestis: examining wildlife plague surveillance in China and the USA, Sarah N. Bevins, John A. Baroch, Dale L. Nolte, Min Zhang, and Hongxuan He

Three Pathogens in Sympatric Populations of Pumas, Bobcats, and Domestic Cats: Implications for Infectious Disease Transmission, Sarah N. Bevins, Scott Carver, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Mat Alldredge, Kenneth A. Logan, Seth P. D. Riley, Robert N. Fisher, T. Winston Vickers, Walter Boyce, Mo Salman, Michael R. Lappin, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Digging Behaviors Of Radio-Tagged Black-Footed Ferrets Near Meeteetse, Wyoming, 1981–1984, Dean E. Biggins, Louis R. Hanebury, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Exploiting Antipredator Behavior in White-Tailed Deer for Resource Protection, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Laura A. Tyson, Jerrold L. Belant, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Exploiting avian vision with aircraft lighting to reduce bird strikes, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, Patrice Baumhardt, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic