National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Physical and behavioural abilities of commensal rodents related to the design of selective rodenticide bait stations, William C. Pitt, Robert T. Sugihara, Laura C. Driscoll, and Daniel S. Vice

Landscape features influence postrelease predation on endangered black-footed ferrets, Sharon A. Poessel, Stewart W. Breck, Dean E. Biggins, Travis M. Livieri, Kevin R. Crooks, and Lisa Angeloni

Acute Toxicity, Histopathology, And Coagulopathy In American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius) Following Administration Of The Rodenticide Diphacinone, Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Sarah E. Warner, Daniel D. Day, Carol U. Meteyer, Steven F. Volker, John Eisemann, and John J. Johnston

A Mark–Recapture Technique for Monitoring Feral Swine Populations, Matthew M. Reidy, Tyler A. Campbell, and David G. Hewitt

Efficacy of ERL-4221 as an ovotoxin for feral pigs (Sus scrofa), Dustin L. Sanders, Fang Xie, Richard E. Mauldin, Jerome C. Hurley, Lowell A. Miller, Michelle R. Garcia, Randy W. DeYoung, David B. Long, and Tyler A. Campbell

Tools for managing invasions: acceptance of non-toxic baits by juvenile Nile monitor lizards and Burmese pythons under laboratory conditions, Peter J. Savarie, Richard Engeman, Richard E. Mauldin, Tom Mathies, and Kenneth L. Tope

Population Estimation and Monitoring of an Endangered Lagomorph, Jason A. Schmidt, Robert A. Mccleery, Paige M. Schmidt, Nova. J. Silvy, and Roel Lopez

Electric shock strips as bird deterrents: does experience count?, Thomas W. Seamans and Bradley F. Blackwelll

Use of overhead wires to deter waterfowl from sewage treatment ponds, Thomas W. Seamans, E. Christopher Willis, and Bradley F. Blackwelll

A Retrospective Economic Analysis of the Ontario Red Fox Oral Rabies Vaccination Programme, S. Shwiff, C. P. Nunan, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, and S. S. Shwiff

Economic evaluation of beaver management to protect timber resources in Mississippi, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, and Kris Casscles Godwin

A field evaluation of a trap for invasive American bullfrogs, Nathan P. Snow and Gary Witmer

Evaluation of Christmas Bird Counts and Landscape Factors as Indicators of Local Blackbird and European Starling Winter Roosts, Matthew Strassburg, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Effects of Management on Double-Crested Cormorant Nesting Colony Fidelity, Bronson K. Strickland, Brian S. Dorr, Fred E. Pogmore, Gary Nohrenberg, Scott C. Barras, John E. Mcconnell, and John Gobeille

Identifying and Managing for Wildlife Damage During Stand Initiation, Jimmy Taylor

Using Fences to Exclude Feral Hogs from Wildlife Feeding Stations, Jared Timmons, Justin Rattan, Tyler A. Campbell, David Long, Billy Higginbotham, Duane Campion, Mark L. McFarland, Nikki Dictson, and James C. Cathey

Evaluation of Sonic Dissuader® to Reduce Damage by Pileated Woodpeckers, Shelagh K. Tupper, John L. Cummings, William F. Andelt, Scott Werner, and Richard Harness

Artificial Nest Cavity Used Successfully by Native Species and Avoided by European Starlings, Laura A. Tyson, Bradley F. Blackwelll, and Thomas W. Seamans

Who hits and hoots at whom? Potential for interference competition between barred and northern spotted owls, Nicholas J. Van Lanen, Alan B. Franklin, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Raoul F. Reiser II, and Peter C. Carlson

Regulated Commercial Harvest to Manage Overabundant White-Tailed Deer: An Idea to Consider?, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Charles W. Anderson, Timothy R. Van Deelen, David Drake, W. David Walter, Stephen Vantassel, and Scott E. Hygnstrom

Diseases and Parasites, Kurt C. Vercauteren and Tyler A. Campbell

Managing White-tailed Deer: Midwest North America, Kurt VerCauteren and Scott E. Hygnstrom

Factors affecting space use overlap by white-tailed deer in an urban landscape, W. David Walter, Jeff Beringer, Lonnie P. Hansen, Justin W. Fischer, Joshua J. Millspaugh, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

What Is the Proper Method to Delineate Home Range of an Animal Using Today’s Advanced GPS Telemetry Systems: The Initial Step, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

PITUOPHIS CATENIFER DESERTICOLA (Great Basin Gophersnake). PREDATION, Steven J. Wamback and Richard Engeman

Wildlife Responses to Long-Term Application of Biosolids to Grasslands in North Carolina, Brian E. Washburn and Michael Begier

Using dietary analyses to reduce the risk of wildlife–aircraft collisions, Brian E. Washburn, Glen E. Bernhardt, and Lisa A. Kutschbach-Brohl

THE NEED TO QUANTIFY ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PROVIDED BY BIRDS, Daniel G. Wenny, Travis L. DeVault, Matthew D. Johnson, Dave Kelly, Cagan H. Sekercioglu, Diana F. Tomback, and Christopher J. Whelan

Anthraquinone-based bird repellent for sunflower crops, Scott J. Werner, George M. Linz, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, Shelagh K. Tupper, and Michele M. Santer

Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents, Scott J. Werner and Frederick D. Provenza

Anthraquinone repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, James C. Carlson, and George M. Linz

Coyote Capture Vulnerability Relative to Space Use and Trap Density, Ryan R. Wilson, Julie K. Young, and John Shivik

Rodent population management at Kansas City International Airport, Gary Witmer

Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories, Gary Witmer and Pam L. Fuller

Attempting to eradicate invasive Gambian giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) in the United States: lessons learned, Gary Witmer and P. Hall

Eradication of invasive rodents on islands of the United States, Gary Witmer, J. Pierce, and William C. Pitt

Feeding of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) with the contraceptive agent DiazaConTM: effect on cholesterol, hematology, and blood chemistry, C. A. Yoder, Brenda A. Mayle, Carol A. Furcolow, David N. Cowan, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Effect of GonaConTM vaccine on black-tailed prairie dogs: Immune response and health effects, C. A. Yoder and Lowell A. Miller

Is Wildlife Going to the Dogs? Impacts of Feral and Free-roaming Dogs on Wildlife Populations, Julie K. Young, Kirk A. Olson, Richard P. Reading, Sukh Amgalanbaatar, and Joel Berger


Importance of resource selection and social behavior to partitioning of hostile space by sympatric canids, Todd Atwood and Eric Gese

Cold weather and the potential range of invasive Burmese pythons, Michael Avery, Richard M. Engeman, Kandy L. Keacher, John S. Humphrey, William E. Bruce, Tom C. Mathies, and Richard E. Mauldin

Resource Selection by Elk in an Agro-Forested Landscape of Northwestern Nebraska, David M. Baasch, Justin W. Fischer, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Andrew J. Tyre, Joshua J. Millspaugh, James W. Merchant, and Jerry D. Volesky

An evaluation of three statistical methods used to model resource selection, David M. Baasch, Andrew J. Tyre, Joshua J. Millspaugh, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Synchronous monitoring of vulture movements with satellite telemetry and avian radar, Robert C. Beason, J. S. Humphrey, N. E. Myers, and Michael L. Avery

Capture of ungulates in Central Asia using drive nets: advantages and pitfalls illustrated by the Endangered Mongolian saiga Saiga tatarica mongolica, Joel Berger, Kim M. Murray, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Mike R. Dunbar, and Badamjav Lkhagvasuren

Temporal Variation in Terrestrial Invertebrate Consumption by Laughing Gulls in New York, Glen E. Bernhardt, Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, Brian E. Washburn, Richard Chipman, and Laura Francoeur

Seroprevalence of equine influenza virus in northeast and southern Mexico, B. J. Blitvich, L. A. Ibarra-Juarez, A. J. Cortes-Guzman, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, and I. Fernandez-Salas

Seroprevalence of equine influenza virus in northeast and southern Mexico, B. J. Blitvitch, L. A. Ibarra-Juarez, A. J. Cortes-Guzman, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, and I. Fernandez-Salas

The effect of enclosure type on the behavior and heart rate of captive coyotes, Stacey P. Brummer, Eric M. Gese, and John A. Shivik

Reducing the Risk of Human Exposure to Wildlife Diseases, Tyler A. Campbell

Visitation to Cottonseed Storage Sites by Feral Swine and Evidence of Gossypol Exposure, Tyler A. Campbell, Sarah Bullock, David B. Long, David G. Hewitt, and Michael Dowd

Immunocontraception in male feral swine treated with a recombinant gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine, Tyler A. Campbell, Michelle R. Garcia, Lowell A. Miller, Martha A. Ramirez, David B. Long, Jean-Baptiste Marchand, and Fergal Hill

Activity Patterns of Wild Boars (Sus Scrofa) in Southern Texas, Tyler A. Campbell and David B. Long

Feral Swine Behavior Relative to Aerial Gunning in Southern Texas, Tyler Campbell, David Long, and Bruce Leland

Integrity of mating behaviors and seasonal reproduction in coyotes (Canis latrans) following treatment with estradiol benzoate, Debra A. Carlson and Eric M. Gese

Using a Cost-Effectiveness Model to Determine the Applicability of OvoControl G to Manage Nuisance Canada Geese, Joe Caudell, Stephanie Shwiff, and Michael Slater

Kill rates and predation patterns of jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil, Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti and Eric M. Gese

Jaguars, Livestock, and People in Brazil: Realities and Perceptions Behind The Conflict, Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti, Silvio Marchini, Alexandra Zimmermann, Eric M. Gese, and David W. Macdonald

Comparison of Endocrine Response to Stress Between Captive-Raised and Wild-Caught Bighorn Sheep, Sarah Coburn, Mo Salman, Jack Rhyan, Thomas Keefe, Matthew McCollum, Keith Aune, Terry Spraker, and Lowell Miller

Refinement of biomarker pentosidine methodology for use on aging birds, Crissa K. Cooey, Jesse A. Fallon, Michael L. Avery, James T. Anderson, Elizabeth A. Falkenstein, and Hillar Klandorf

Modeling the Economic Impact of Feral Swine-Transmitted Foot-and- Mouth Disease: A Case Study from Missouri, Tyler Cozzens, Karen Gebhardt, Stephanie Shwiff, Mark Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, and Seth Swafford

Sexual differences in hair morphology of coyote and white-tailed deer: males have thicker hair., Andrew K. Davis, Stacey P. Brummer, and John Shivik

Promiscuous mating in feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Texas, USA, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Angeline Zamorano, Randy W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, and David B. Long

Management effects on breeding and foraging numbers and movements of double-crested cormorants in the Les Cheneaux Islands, Lake Huron, Michigan, Brian S. Dorr, Tony Aderrnan, Peter H. Butchko, and Scott C. Barras

Evaluation of harassment of migrating double-crested cormorants to limit depredation on selected sport fisheries in Michigan, S. Dorr Brian; Ashley Moerke; Michael Bur; Chuck Bassett; Tony Aderman; Dan Traynor; Russell D. Singleton; Peter H. Butchko; and Jimmy D. Taylor, II

A review of existing and potential New World and Australasian vertebrate pesticides with a rationale for linking use patterns to registration requirements, Charles T. Eason, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, John D. Eisemann, Simon Humphrys, Jeanette R. O’Hare, and Steven J. Lapidge

Regulatory and Policy Issues around Nontarget Mortality and Environmental Fate of Rodenticides, John D. Eisemann, Catherine E. Swift, Peter A. Dunlevy, William C. Pitt, and Gary Witmer

Dramatic and immediate improvements in insular nesting success for threatened sea turtles and shorebirds following predator management, Richard Engeman, Anthony Duffiney, Sally Braem, Christina Olsen, Bernice Constantin, Parks Small, John Dunlap, and J.C. Griffin

The economic impacts to commercial farms from invasive monkeys in Puerto Rico, Richard M. Engeman, Jose´ E. Laborde, Bernice U. Constantin, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Parker Hall, Anthony Duffiney, and Freddie Luciano

Review of issues concerning the use of reproductive inhibitors, with particular emphasis on resolving human-wildlife conflicts in North America, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Lowell A. Miller, Gary Killian, and Christi A. Yoder

Review of issues concerning the use of reproductive inhibitors, with particular emphasis on resolving human-wildlife conflicts in North America, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Lowell A. Miller, Gary Killian, and Christi A. Yoder

In Memory William B. Jackson 1926-2010, Michael W. Fall

Eradicating Rats on Lehua Island, Hawaii, with the Help of GIS and GPS, Justin W. Fischer and Peter Dunlevy

Eradicating Rats on Lehua Island, Hawaii, with the Help of GIS and GPS, Justin W. Fischer and Peter Dunlevy

LACTATING NORTH AMERICAN BEAVERS (CASTOR CANADENSIS) SHARING DENS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES, Justin W. Fischer, Roger E. Joos, Melissa A. Neubaum, Jimmy D. Taylor, David L. Bergman, Dale L. Nolte, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Evaluation of rhodamine B as a biomarker for raccoons, Tricia L. Fry, Todd C. Atwood, and Mike R. Dunbar

Livestock Protection Dogs in the 21st Century: Is an Ancient Tool Relevant to Modern Conservation Challenges?, Thomas M. Gehring, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Jean-Marc Landry

Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms, Thomas M. Gehring, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Megan L. Provost, and Anna C. Cellar

Genetic evidence for high propagule pressure and long-distance dispersal in monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) invasive populations, Anders Goncalves da Silva, Jessica R. Eberhard, Timothy F. Wright, Michael L. Avery, and Michael A. Russello

Ganadería y Fauna Silvestre del Noreste de México y Sur de Texas e Implicaciones de la Garrapata Boophilus: Opción de los Ganaderos, Eduardo A. González-V, David G. Hewitt, J. Alfonso Ortega-Santos, Randy W. DeYoung, Tyler Campbell, and Fred C. Bryant

Multi-year fertility reduction in free-roaming feral horses with single-injection immunocontraceptive formulations, Meeghan E. Gray, David S. Thain, Elissa Z. Cameron, and Lowell A. Miller

Wildlife Conservation Sunflower Plots and Croplands as Fall Habitat for Migratory Birds, Heath M. Hagy, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Increased Abundance and First Breeding Record of the Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) on the Alluvial Plain of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. DeVault, and Stephen J. Dinsmore

Site Use of European Starlings Captured and Radio-Tagged at Texas Feedlots during Winter, H. Jeffrey Homan, A.A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, George M. Linz, Michael Bodenchuk, and Rickey L. Gilliland

Field Testing Class IIIb Handheld Lasers to Disperse Roosting Blackbirds, H. Jeffrey Homan, Anthony Slowik, Bradley Blackwell, and George Linz

European Starling Preferences for Bait Substrates Used In DRC-1339 Applications, H. Jeffrey Homan USDA/APHIS/Wildlife Services’ National Wildlife Research Center, 2110 Miriam Circle, Suite B, Bismarck, ND 58501, USA; George Linz; Scott Beckerman; Anthony Duffiney; and Thomas Halstead

The Use of Liver Microsome In-Vitro Methods to Study Toxicant Metabolism and Predict Species Efficacy, Katherine E. Horak, Chad R. Wermager, and Thomas M. Primus

Why don’t rats and mice vomit? A behavioral and anatomical investigation, C.C. Horn, National Wildlife Res. Ctr, G.R. Gathright, B. Yates, and P.L. Andrews

On a Quest for Safer Skies: Managing the Growing Threat of Wildlife Hazards to Aviation, Gail Keirn, Jonathon Cepek, Brad Blackwell, and Travis DeVaul

Superabundant Food at Catfish Aquaculture Facilities Improves Body Condition in American White Pelicans, D. Tommy King, Jerold Belant, Brent Harrel, and James Glahn

Effects of Aquaculture on Migration and Movement Patterns of Double-Crested Cormorants, D. Tommy King, Bradley Blackwell, and Brian Dorr

Assessment of Bird Damage to Sunflower and Corn in North Dakota, Megan Klosterman, George Linz, Tony Slowik, and William Bleier

Avian Piscivores as Vectors for Myxobolus cerebralis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Todd M. Koel, Billie L. Kerans, Scott C. Barras, Katie C. Hanson, and John S. Wood

An Evaluation of Diazacon as a Potential Contraceptive in Non-Native Rose-Ringed Parakeets, Mark Lambert, Giovanna Massel, Christi Yoder, and David Cowan

Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves (Canis lupus), N. J. Lance, S. W. Breck, C. Sime, P. Callahan, and J. A. Shivik

Response of Deer to Containment by a Poly-Mesh Fence for Mitigating Disease Outbreaks, Michael J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Joshua J. White, Aaron M. Hildreth, Gregory E. Phillips, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Evaluation of Large, Mobile, Decoy Traps for Managing Blackbird Damage to Ripening Sunflower, George M. Linz, Anthony Slowik, H. Jeffrey Homan, and Robert Byrd

Evaluation of Feral Swine- Specific Feeder Systems, David B. Long, Tyler A. Campbell, and Giovanna Massei

Antibodies to Influenza and West Nile Viruses in Horses in Mexico, M. A. Loroño-Pino, J. A. Farfan-Ale, J. E. Garcia-Rejon, M. Lin, E. Rosado-Paredes, F. I. Puerto, A. Bates, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, and B. J. Blitvich

Contraceptive Efficacy of a Novel Intrauterine Device (IUD) in White-Tailed Deer, Karl D. Malcolm, Timothy R. Van Deelen, David Drake, Darrel J. Kesler, and Kurt C. VerCauteren