National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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Fort Collins, CO 80521
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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


The effect of enclosure type on the behavior and heart rate of captive coyotes, Stacey P. Brummer, Eric M. Gese, and John A. Shivik

Reducing the Risk of Human Exposure to Wildlife Diseases, Tyler A. Campbell

Visitation to Cottonseed Storage Sites by Feral Swine and Evidence of Gossypol Exposure, Tyler A. Campbell, Sarah Bullock, David B. Long, David G. Hewitt, and Michael Dowd

Immunocontraception in male feral swine treated with a recombinant gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine, Tyler A. Campbell, Michelle R. Garcia, Lowell A. Miller, Martha A. Ramirez, David B. Long, Jean-Baptiste Marchand, and Fergal Hill

Activity Patterns of Wild Boars (Sus Scrofa) in Southern Texas, Tyler A. Campbell and David B. Long

Feral Swine Behavior Relative to Aerial Gunning in Southern Texas, Tyler Campbell, David Long, and Bruce Leland

Integrity of mating behaviors and seasonal reproduction in coyotes (Canis latrans) following treatment with estradiol benzoate, Debra A. Carlson and Eric M. Gese

Using a Cost-Effectiveness Model to Determine the Applicability of OvoControl G to Manage Nuisance Canada Geese, Joe Caudell, Stephanie Shwiff, and Michael Slater

Kill rates and predation patterns of jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil, Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti and Eric M. Gese

Jaguars, Livestock, and People in Brazil: Realities and Perceptions Behind The Conflict, Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti, Silvio Marchini, Alexandra Zimmermann, Eric M. Gese, and David W. Macdonald

Comparison of Endocrine Response to Stress Between Captive-Raised and Wild-Caught Bighorn Sheep, Sarah Coburn, Mo Salman, Jack Rhyan, Thomas Keefe, Matthew McCollum, Keith Aune, Terry Spraker, and Lowell Miller

Refinement of biomarker pentosidine methodology for use on aging birds, Crissa K. Cooey, Jesse A. Fallon, Michael L. Avery, James T. Anderson, Elizabeth A. Falkenstein, and Hillar Klandorf

Modeling the Economic Impact of Feral Swine-Transmitted Foot-and- Mouth Disease: A Case Study from Missouri, Tyler Cozzens, Karen Gebhardt, Stephanie Shwiff, Mark Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, and Seth Swafford

Sexual differences in hair morphology of coyote and white-tailed deer: males have thicker hair., Andrew K. Davis, Stacey P. Brummer, and John Shivik

Promiscuous mating in feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Texas, USA, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Angeline Zamorano, Randy W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, and David B. Long

Management effects on breeding and foraging numbers and movements of double-crested cormorants in the Les Cheneaux Islands, Lake Huron, Michigan, Brian S. Dorr, Tony Aderrnan, Peter H. Butchko, and Scott C. Barras

Evaluation of harassment of migrating double-crested cormorants to limit depredation on selected sport fisheries in Michigan, S. Dorr Brian; Ashley Moerke; Michael Bur; Chuck Bassett; Tony Aderman; Dan Traynor; Russell D. Singleton; Peter H. Butchko; and Jimmy D. Taylor, II

A review of existing and potential New World and Australasian vertebrate pesticides with a rationale for linking use patterns to registration requirements, Charles T. Eason, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, John D. Eisemann, Simon Humphrys, Jeanette R. O’Hare, and Steven J. Lapidge

Regulatory and Policy Issues around Nontarget Mortality and Environmental Fate of Rodenticides, John D. Eisemann, Catherine E. Swift, Peter A. Dunlevy, William C. Pitt, and Gary Witmer

Dramatic and immediate improvements in insular nesting success for threatened sea turtles and shorebirds following predator management, Richard Engeman, Anthony Duffiney, Sally Braem, Christina Olsen, Bernice Constantin, Parks Small, John Dunlap, and J.C. Griffin

The economic impacts to commercial farms from invasive monkeys in Puerto Rico, Richard M. Engeman, Jose´ E. Laborde, Bernice U. Constantin, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Parker Hall, Anthony Duffiney, and Freddie Luciano

Review of issues concerning the use of reproductive inhibitors, with particular emphasis on resolving human-wildlife conflicts in North America, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Lowell A. Miller, Gary Killian, and Christi A. Yoder

Review of issues concerning the use of reproductive inhibitors, with particular emphasis on resolving human-wildlife conflicts in North America, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Lowell A. Miller, Gary Killian, and Christi A. Yoder

In Memory William B. Jackson 1926-2010, Michael W. Fall

Eradicating Rats on Lehua Island, Hawaii, with the Help of GIS and GPS, Justin W. Fischer and Peter Dunlevy

Eradicating Rats on Lehua Island, Hawaii, with the Help of GIS and GPS, Justin W. Fischer and Peter Dunlevy

LACTATING NORTH AMERICAN BEAVERS (CASTOR CANADENSIS) SHARING DENS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES, Justin W. Fischer, Roger E. Joos, Melissa A. Neubaum, Jimmy D. Taylor, David L. Bergman, Dale L. Nolte, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Evaluation of rhodamine B as a biomarker for raccoons, Tricia L. Fry, Todd C. Atwood, and Mike R. Dunbar

Livestock Protection Dogs in the 21st Century: Is an Ancient Tool Relevant to Modern Conservation Challenges?, Thomas M. Gehring, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Jean-Marc Landry

Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms, Thomas M. Gehring, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Megan L. Provost, and Anna C. Cellar

Genetic evidence for high propagule pressure and long-distance dispersal in monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) invasive populations, Anders Goncalves da Silva, Jessica R. Eberhard, Timothy F. Wright, Michael L. Avery, and Michael A. Russello

Ganadería y Fauna Silvestre del Noreste de México y Sur de Texas e Implicaciones de la Garrapata Boophilus: Opción de los Ganaderos, Eduardo A. González-V, David G. Hewitt, J. Alfonso Ortega-Santos, Randy W. DeYoung, Tyler Campbell, and Fred C. Bryant

Multi-year fertility reduction in free-roaming feral horses with single-injection immunocontraceptive formulations, Meeghan E. Gray, David S. Thain, Elissa Z. Cameron, and Lowell A. Miller

Wildlife Conservation Sunflower Plots and Croplands as Fall Habitat for Migratory Birds, Heath M. Hagy, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Increased Abundance and First Breeding Record of the Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) on the Alluvial Plain of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. DeVault, and Stephen J. Dinsmore

Site Use of European Starlings Captured and Radio-Tagged at Texas Feedlots during Winter, H. Jeffrey Homan, A.A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, George M. Linz, Michael Bodenchuk, and Rickey L. Gilliland

Field Testing Class IIIb Handheld Lasers to Disperse Roosting Blackbirds, H. Jeffrey Homan, Anthony Slowik, Bradley Blackwell, and George Linz

European Starling Preferences for Bait Substrates Used In DRC-1339 Applications, H. Jeffrey Homan USDA/APHIS/Wildlife Services’ National Wildlife Research Center, 2110 Miriam Circle, Suite B, Bismarck, ND 58501, USA; George Linz; Scott Beckerman; Anthony Duffiney; and Thomas Halstead

The Use of Liver Microsome In-Vitro Methods to Study Toxicant Metabolism and Predict Species Efficacy, Katherine E. Horak, Chad R. Wermager, and Thomas M. Primus

Why don’t rats and mice vomit? A behavioral and anatomical investigation, C.C. Horn, National Wildlife Res. Ctr, G.R. Gathright, B. Yates, and P.L. Andrews

On a Quest for Safer Skies: Managing the Growing Threat of Wildlife Hazards to Aviation, Gail Keirn, Jonathon Cepek, Brad Blackwell, and Travis DeVaul

Superabundant Food at Catfish Aquaculture Facilities Improves Body Condition in American White Pelicans, D. Tommy King, Jerold Belant, Brent Harrel, and James Glahn

Effects of Aquaculture on Migration and Movement Patterns of Double-Crested Cormorants, D. Tommy King, Bradley Blackwell, and Brian Dorr

Assessment of Bird Damage to Sunflower and Corn in North Dakota, Megan Klosterman, George Linz, Tony Slowik, and William Bleier

Avian Piscivores as Vectors for Myxobolus cerebralis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Todd M. Koel, Billie L. Kerans, Scott C. Barras, Katie C. Hanson, and John S. Wood

An Evaluation of Diazacon as a Potential Contraceptive in Non-Native Rose-Ringed Parakeets, Mark Lambert, Giovanna Massel, Christi Yoder, and David Cowan

Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves (Canis lupus), N. J. Lance, S. W. Breck, C. Sime, P. Callahan, and J. A. Shivik

Response of Deer to Containment by a Poly-Mesh Fence for Mitigating Disease Outbreaks, Michael J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Joshua J. White, Aaron M. Hildreth, Gregory E. Phillips, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Evaluation of Large, Mobile, Decoy Traps for Managing Blackbird Damage to Ripening Sunflower, George M. Linz, Anthony Slowik, H. Jeffrey Homan, and Robert Byrd

Evaluation of Feral Swine- Specific Feeder Systems, David B. Long, Tyler A. Campbell, and Giovanna Massei

Antibodies to Influenza and West Nile Viruses in Horses in Mexico, M. A. Loroño-Pino, J. A. Farfan-Ale, J. E. Garcia-Rejon, M. Lin, E. Rosado-Paredes, F. I. Puerto, A. Bates, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, and B. J. Blitvich

Contraceptive Efficacy of a Novel Intrauterine Device (IUD) in White-Tailed Deer, Karl D. Malcolm, Timothy R. Van Deelen, David Drake, Darrel J. Kesler, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Immunocontraception to control rabies in dog populations, Giovanna Massei, Lowell A. Miller, and Gary Killian

Reproductive Biology of Male Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, Tom Mathies, John A. Cruz, Valentine A. Lance, and Julie A. Savidge

Acetaminophen as an Oral Toxicant for Nile Monitor Lizards (Varanus niloticus) and Burmese Pythons (Python molurus bivittatus), Richard E. Mauldin and Peter J. Savarie

Seeking a Second Opinion: Uncertainty in Disease Ecology, Brett T. McClintock, James D. Nichols, Larissa L. Bailey, Darryl I. MacKenzie, William. L. Kendall, and Alan B. Franklin

Test of Localized Management for Reducing Deer Browsing in Forest Regeneration Areas, Brad F. Miller, Tyler Campbell, Ben Laseter, W. Mark Ford, and Karl Miller

Fine-Scale Genetic and Social Structuring in a Central Appalachian White-Tailed Deer Herd, Brad F. Miller, Randy W. Deyoung, Tyler A. Campbell, Benjamin R. Laseter, W. Mark Ford, and Karl V. Miller

Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Feral Swine: Susceptibility and Transmission, F. Mohamed, S. Swafford, H. Petrowski, A. Bracht, B. Schmit, A. Fabian, J. M. Pacheco, E. Hartwig, M. Berninger, C. Carrillo, G. Mayr, K. Moran, D. Kavanaugh, H. Leibrecht, W. White, and S. Metwally

The Earliest House Sparrow Introductions to North America, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., Michael L. Avery, and Linda E. Moulton

Shedding and serologic responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus, Nicole M. Nemeth, Nicholas O. Thomas, Darcy S. Orahood, Theodore D. Anderson, and Paul T. Oesterle

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak In A Captive Facility Housing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus), And Goats (Capra Hircus) In Colorado, Usa, Pauline Nol, Cecilia Kato, Will K. Reeves, Jack Rhyan, Terry R. Spraker, Thomas Gidlewski, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Mo Salman

Experimental Exposure of Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to West Nile Virus, Paul T. Oesterle, Nicole M. Nemeth, Paul Doherty, Robert McLean, and Larry Clark

Cliff Swallows, Swallow Bugs, and West Nile Virus: An Unlikely Transmission Mechanism, Paul T. Oesterle, Nicole M. Nemeth, Ginger Young, Nicole Mooers, Stacey Elmore, Richard Bowen, Paul Doherty, Jeffrey Hall, Robert McLean, and Larry Clark

Emerging Challenges of Managing Island Invasive Species: Potential Invasive Species Unintentionally Spread from Military Restructuring, William C. Pitt, Randal S. Stahl, and Christi Yoder

Raccoon (Procyon lotor) Movements and Dispersal Associated with Ridges and Valleys of Pennsylvania: Implications for Rabies Management, Robert B. Puskas, Justin W. Fischer, Craig B. Swope, Mike R. Dunbar, Robert G. McLean, and J. Jeffrey Root

Evolving Analyses of the Shoshone River Skunk Rabies Epizootic in Wyoming, Craig A. Ramey, Kenneth H. Mills, and Justin W. Fischer

Exclusion Fencing for Feral Hogs at White-tailed Deer Feeders, Justin M. Rattan, Billy J. Higginbotham, David B. Long, and Tyler A. Campbell

Comparative Toxicity of Diphacinone to Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Sarah E. Warner, Daniel D. Day, and John J. Johnston

Acute toxicity of diphacinone in Northern bobwhite: Effects on survival and blood clotting, Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Sarah E. Warner, and John J. Johnston

A Silent Enzootic of an Orthopoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: Evidence for Multi-Species Involvement in the Absence of Widespread Human Disease, Mary G. Reynolds, Darin S. Carroll, Victoria A. Olson, Christine Hughes, Jack Galley, Anna Likos, Joel M. Montgomery, Richard Suu-Ire, Mubarak O. Kwasi, J. Jeffrey Root, Zach Braden, Jason Abel, Cody Clemmons, Russell Regnery, Kevin Karem, and Inger K. Damon

Experimental Infection of Raccoons (Procyon lotor) with West Nile Virus, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole M. Nemeth, Thomas Gidlewski, Terry R. Spraker, and Alan B. Franklin

Enzymatic Digestion of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions Bound to Soil, Samuel Saunders, Jason C. Bartz, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt

Habitat succession, hardwood encroachment and raccoons as limiting factors for Lower Keys marsh rabbits, Paige M. Schmidt, Robert A. McCleery, Roel R. Lopez, Nova J. Silvy, and Jason A. Schmidt

What Tradition Teaches: INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE COMPLEMENTS WESTERN WILDLIFE SCIENCE, Paige M. Schmidt and Heather K. Stricker

Response of Captive Skunks to Microencapsulated Tetracycline, Brandon S. Schmit, Thomas M. Primus, Jerome C. Hurley, Dennis J. Kohler, and Shawna F. Graves

Reporting Difference for Colored Patagial Tags on Ring-Billed Gulls, Thomas W. Seamans, Scott F. Beckerman, John W. Hartmann, James A. Rader, and Bradley F. Blackwell

Potential Economic Damage From Introduction of Brown Tree Snakes, Boiga Irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), to The Islands Of Hawai‘i, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, and Steven S. Shwiff

The Versatility of Graded Acoustic Measures in Classification of Predation Threats by the Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus bicolor: Exploring a Mixed Framework for Threat Communication, Kathryn E. Sieving, Stacia A. Hetrick, and Michael L. Avery

Host-Specificity of Myxoma Virus: Pathogenesis of South American and North American Strains of Myxoma Virus in Two North American Lagomorph Species, L. Silvers, D. Barnard, F. Knowlton, B. Inglis, A. Labudovic, M.K. Holland, P.A. Janssens, B.H. van Leeuwen, and P.J. Kerr

Assessment of Woven Wire for Reducing Predation on Red-Winged Blackbird Nests, Anthony A. Slowik, George M. Linz, and H. Jeffrey Homan

American Bullfrogs as Invasive Species: A Review of the Introduction, Subsequent Problems, Management Options, and Future Directions, Nathan Snow and Gary Witmer

Mite-Filled Cyst on a Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) in Florida, USA, Marilyn G. Spalding, James W. Mertins, Matthew J. Reetz, Kandy L. Keacher, Michael L. Avery, and Ellis C. Greiner

Evaluation of Christmas Bird Counts and Landscape Factors as Indicators of Local Blackbird and European Starling Winter Roosts, Matthew Strassburg, George Linz, and William Bleier

Polyurea Elastomer Protects Utility Pole Crossarms From Damage by Pileated Woodpeckers, Shelagh Tupper, William Andelt, John Cummings, Charles Weisner, and Richard Harness

Shedding Light on Avian Influenza H4N6 Infection in Mallards: Modes of Transmission and Implications for Surveillance, Kaci K. VanDalen, Alan B. Franklin, Nicole L. Mooers, Heather J. Sullivan, and Susan A. Shriner

Identification and Management of Wildlife Damage, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Richard A. Dolbeer, and Eric M. Gese

Assessment of Abilities of White-Tailed Deer to Jump Fences, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Timothy R. Vandeelen, Michael J. Lavelle, and Wayne Hall

Management of damage by elk (Cervus elaphus) in North America: a review, W. David Walter, Michael J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Therese L. Johnson, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Body Lice, Yersinia pestis Orientalis, and Black Death, Mark Welford, Brian Bossak, Robert G. McLean, Michael W. Fall, Michel Drancourt, and Didier Raoult

Laboratory Efficacy of Chemical Repellents for Reducing Blackbird Damage in Rice and Sunflower Crops, Scott J. Werner, George M. Linz, Shelagh K. Tupper, and James C. Carlson

Increased Risk of Chronic Wasting Disease in Rocky Mountain Elk Associated With Decreased Magnesium and Increased Manganese in Brain Tissue, Stephen N. White, Katherine I. O’Rourke, Thomas Gidlewski, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michelle R. Mousel, Gregory E. Phillips, and Terry R. Spraker

Prey-mediated avoidance of an intraguild predator by its intraguild prey, Ryan R. Wilson, Terry L. Blankenship, Mevin B. Hooten, and John Shivik

Accounting for Individuals, Uncertainty, and Multiscale Clustering in Core Area Estimation, Ryan R. Wilson, Mevin B. Hooten, Bradley N. Strobel, and John Shivik

Challenges and Unique Solutions to Rodent Eradication in Florida, Gary Witmer, John D. Eisemann, Parker Hall, Michael L. Avery, and Anthony Duffiney

Assessing Potential Risk to Alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, from Nutria Control with Zinc Phosphide Rodenticide Baits, Gary Witmer, John D. Eisemann, Thomas M. Primus, Jeanette R. O’Hare, Kelly R. Perry, Ruth M. Elsey, and Phillip L. Trosclair III

Epizootiologic Survey of Mycobacterium Bovis in Wildlife and Farm Environments in Northern Michigan, Gary Witmer, Amanda E. Fine, James Gionfriddo, Michael Pipas, Kirk Shively, Kim Piccolo, and Patrick Burke

Rodent outbreaks in North America, Gary Witmer and Gilbert Proulx


Potential Attractants for Detecting and Removing Invading Gambian Giant Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus), Gary Witmer, Nathan Snow, and Patrick Burke