National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Open Field Test with Avipel Bird Repellent: Year I, Megan Niner, George Linz, Jeffrey Homan, and Mark Clark


Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Waterbirds in the Rift Valley of Kenya Using Fecal Sampling, Victor O. Ofula, Alan B. Franklin, J. Jeffrey Root, Heather J. Sullivan, Patrick Gichuki, Albina Makio, Wallace Bulimo, Bernard O. Abong'o, Muchane Muchai, and David Schnabel

PSEUDORABIES (AUJESZKY’S DISEASE), Kerri Pedersen and Yvonne Nadler

Large-scale rodent control reduces pre- and post-dispersal seed predation of the endangered Hawaiian lobeliad, Cyanea superba subsp. superba (Campanulaceae), Richard J. Pender, Aaron B. Shiels, Lalasia Bialic-Murphy, and Stephen M. Mosher

Pseudorabies in Feral Swine in the United States, 2009–2012, Kerri Pendersen, Sarah N. Bevins, John A. Baroch, James C. Cumbee Jr., Shannon C. Chandler, Billy S. Woodruff, Troy T. Bigelow, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Molecular phylogeny of an ancient rodent family (Aplodontiidae), Antoinette J. Piaggio, Brett A. Coghlan, Allyson E. Miscampbell, Wendy M. Arjo, Douglas B. Ransome, and Carol E. Ritland

Detecting an elusive invasive species: a diagnostic PCR to detect Burmese python in Florida waters and an assessment of persistence of environmental DNA, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Richard Engeman, Matthew W. Hopken, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, William E. Bruce, and Michael L. Avery


Immunization with a Synthetic Peptide Vaccine Fails to Protect Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Chronic Wasting Disease, John L. Pilon, Jack C. Rhyan, Lisa L. Wolfe, Tracy R. Davis, Matt P. McCollum, Katherine I. O'Rourke, Terry R. Spraker, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Michael W. Miller, Thomas Gidlewski, Tracy A. Nichols, Lowell A. Miller, and Pauline Nol

Patterns of Human–Coyote Conflicts in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Sharon A. Poessel, Stewart W. Breck, Tara L. Teel, Stephanie Shwiff, Kevin R. Crooks, and Lisa Angeloni

Den attendance patterns in swift foxes during pup rearing: varying degrees of parental investment within the breeding pair, Sharon A. Poessel and Eric M. Gese

Graphically Characterizing the Movement of a Rabid Striped Skunk Epizootic Across the Landscape in Northwestern Wyoming, Craig A. Ramey, Kenneth W. Mills, Justin W. Fischer, Robert G. McLean, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, and Richard M. Engeman


West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis, J. Jeffrey Root

Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus Infection in a Desert Cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii) from Colorado, USA, J. Jeffrey Root, Matthew W. Hopken, Thomas Gidlewski, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Anthropogenic and physiologically induced stress responses in captive coyotes, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, and Rachel M. Santymire

Do Native Warm-season Grasslands Near Airports Increase Bird Strike Hazards?, Jason A. Schmidt, Brian E. Washburn, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, and Paige M. Schmidt

Tactile and Auditory Repellents to Reduce Wildlife Hazards to Aircraft, Thomas W. Seamans, James A. Martin, and Jerrold L. Belant

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 4 Tactile and Auditory Repellents to Reduce Wildlife Hazards to Aircraft, Thomas W. Seamans, James A. Martin, and Jerrold L. Belant

Dietary niche differentiation among three species of invasive rodents (Rattus rattus, R. exulans, Mus musculus), Aaron B. Shiels, Caitlin A. Flores, Arthur Khamsing, Paul D. Krushelnycky, Stephen M. Mosher, and Donald R. Drake

Landslides cause spatial and temporal gradients at multiple scales in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels and Lawrence R. Walker

Assignment of measurable costs and benefits to wildlife conservation projects, S. A. Shwiff, A. Anderson, R. Cullen, P. C. L. White, and S. S. Shwiff

Potential economic benefits of eliminating canine rabies, Stephanie Shwiff, Katie Hampson, and Aaron Anderson

Effects of Black-tailed Deer and Roosevelt Elk Herbivory in Intensively Managed Douglas-fir Plantations, Jimmy Taylor

Wildlife in managed forests: An overview of perspectives from the Pacific Northwest, Jimmy D. Taylor

Identifying and Managing Mountain Beaver Damage to Forest Resources, Jimmy Taylor, Donivan Sphar, and OSU Extension forester

Optimizing line intercept sampling and estimation for feral swine damage levels in ecologically sensitive wetland plant communities, Jacob F. Thomas, Richard M. Engeman, Eric Tillman, Justin W. Fischer, Steve L. Orzell, Deborah H. Glueck, Rodney K. Felix, and Michael L. Avery

Influence of vegetation structure on the small mammal community in a shortgrass prairie ecosystem, Craig M. Thompson and Eric M. Gese

New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses, Suxiang Tong, Xueyong Zhu, Yan Li, Mang Shi, Jing Zhang, Melissa Bourgeois, Hua Yang, Xianfeng Chen, Sergio Recuenco, Jorge Gomez, Li-Mei Chen, Adam Johnson, Ying Tao, Cyrille Dreyfus, Wenli Yu, Ryan McBride, Paul J. Carney, Amy T. Gilbert, Jessie Chang, Zhu Guo, Charles T. Davis, James C. Paulson, James Stevens, Charles E. Rupprecht, Edward C. Holmes, Ian A. Wilson, and Ruben O. Donis

West Nile Virus Infection in American Robins: New Insights on Dose Response, Kaci Van Dalen, Jeffrey S. Hall, Larry Clark, Robert G. McLean, and Cynthia Smeraski

Concomitant administration of GonaConTMand rabies vaccine infemale dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico, Fernando Vargas-Pino, Verónica Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Erick J. Canales-Vargas, Luis R. Gress-Ortega, Lowell A. Miller, C. E. Rupprecht, Scott C. Bender, Patricia García-Reyna, Juan Ocampo-López, and Dennis Slate

Excluding Mammals from Airports, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Michael Lavelle, and Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 5 Excluding Mammals from Airports, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Michael Lavelle, and Thomas W. Seamans

Chapter 2 Spatial patterns for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 3 Physical causes and consequences for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 4 Biological consequences for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 5 Biotic interactions and temporal patterns forLandslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 6 Living with landslides for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 7 Large scales and future directions for landslide ecology from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Color Plates from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Glossary from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Index from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Introduction for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Lanslide Ecology: Cover, Contents, Preface, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

References from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Changes in abiotic influences on seed plants and ferns during 18 years of primary succession on Puerto Rican landslides, Lawrence R. Walker, Aaron B. Shiels, Peter J. Bellingham, Ashley D. Sparrow, Ned Fetcher, Fred H. Landau, and Deborah J. Lodge

Topographic Home Range of Large Mammals: Is Planimetric Home Range Still a Viable Method?, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, Teresa J. Frink, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Jonathan A. Jenks, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan, W. D. Walter, J. W. Fischer, C. W. Anderson, D. R. Marks, T. Deliberto, S. Robbe-Austerman, and K. C. VerCauteren

Evolutionary Characterization of the Pandemic H1N1/ 2009 Influenza Virus in Humans Based on Non-Structural Genes, Chengmin Wang, Yanyu Zhang, Bin Wu, Shelan Liu, Ping Xu, Yanmin Lu, Jing Luo, Dale Louis Nolte, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Mingxing Duan, Hong Zhang, and Hongxuan He

Detection of African swine fever virus-like sequences in ponds in the Mississippi Delta through metagenomic sequencing, Xiu-Feng Wan, J. Lamar Barnett, Fred Cunningham, Si Chen, Guohua Yang, Shannon Nash, Li-Pong Long, Lorelei Ford, Sherry Blackmon, Yan Zhang, Larry Hanson, and Qiang He

FORAGING ECOLOGY OF FOUR GULL SPECIES AT A COASTAL–URBAN INTERFACE, Brian E. Washburn, Glen E. Bernhardt, Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, Richard B. Chipman, and Laura C. Francoeur

Wildlife strikes to civil helicopters in the US, 1990–2011, Brian E. Washburn, Paul Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

Managing Turfgrass to Reduce Wildlife Hazards at Airports, Brian E. Washburn and Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 10 Managing Turfgrass to Reduce Wildlife Hazards at Airports, Brian E. Washburn and Thomas W. Seamans

Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys, Scott J. Werner, Richard Buchholz, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. T. Pettit, and Jeremy W. Ellis

Evaluating Habitat Manipulations and Rodenticides to Protect Seedlings from Rodent Damage at Restored Landfills in New York, Gary Witmer

The effects of vitamin K1-rich plant foods on the efficacy of the anticoagulant rodenticides chlorophacinone and diphacinone, used against Montane Voles (Microtus montanus), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Estimating Prion Adsorption Capacity of Soil by BioAssay of Subtracted Infectivity from Complex Solutions (BASICS), A. Christy Wyckoff, Krista L. Lockwood, Crystal Meyerett-Reid, Brady A. Michel, Heather Bender, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Mark D. Zabel

Mutation from arginine to lysine at the position 189 of hemagglutinin contributes to the antigenic drift in H3N2 swine influenza viruses, Jianqiang Ye, Yifei Xu, Jillian Harris, Hailiang Sun, Andrew S. Bowman, Fred Cunningham, Carol Cardona, Kyoungjin J. Yoon, Richard D. Slemons, and Xiu-Feng Wan


Chapter 4: Top-Predators as Biodiversity Regulators: Contemporary Issues Affecting Knowledge and Management of Dingoes in Australia, Benjamin L.R. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Matt Hayward, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew B. Allison, Dennis J. Kohler, Karen A. Fox, Justin D. Brown, Richard W. Gerhold, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Edward J. Dubovi, Colin R. Parrish, and Edward C. Holmes

The Net Benefits of Controlling Bird and Rodent Pests in Wine Grape and Avocado Production, Aaron Anderson, Katy Kirkpatrick, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Economic Evaluation of Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus) Rabies Prevention in Mexico, Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, A. J. Ramırez, Steven Shwiff, Dennis Kohler, and Luis Lecuona

Crow Pellets from Winter Roosts in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Mary Annala, Eric A. Tillman, Gregory A. Backus, Kandy L. Keacher, and Michael L. Avery


Biology of Invasive Monk Parakeets in South Florida, Michael L. Avery, Eric A. Tillman, Kandy L. Keacher, John E. Arnett, and Kelli J. Lundy

Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas (Caribbean tree frog), Karen H. Beard and William C. Pitt

A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Raccoon Abundance: Implications for Disease Vaccination Programs, James C. Beasley, William S. Beatty, Todd C. Atwood, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Carrion cycling in food webs: comparisons among terrestrial and marine ecosystems, James C. Beasley, Z. H. Olson, and T. L. DeVault

Genetic structure of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population inhabiting a fragmented agricultural ecosystem, William S. Beatty, James C. Beasley, Guha Dharmarajan, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

A Novel Isoflurane Anesthesia Induction System for Raccoons, Kevin T. Bentler, Daniel N. Gossett, and J. Jeffrey Root

Survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection in African lion (Panthera leo), African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, Are R. Berentsen, Matthew S. Becker, Heather Stockdale-Walden, Wigganson Matandiko, Rachel McRobb, and Mike R. Dunbar

Influence of Forest Structure on the Abundance of Snowshoe Hares in Western Wyoming, Nathan D. Berg, Eric M. Gese, John Squires, and Lise M. Aubry

Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010, Thomas E. Besser, Margaret A. Highland, Katherine Baker, E. Frances Cassirer, Neil J. Anderson, Jennifer M. Ramsey, Kristin Mansfield, Darren L. Bruning, Peregrine Wolff, Joshua B. Smith, and Jonathan A. Jenks

Yersinia pestis: examining wildlife plague surveillance in China and the USA, Sarah N. Bevins, John A. Baroch, Dale L. Nolte, Min Zhang, and Hongxuan He

Three Pathogens in Sympatric Populations of Pumas, Bobcats, and Domestic Cats: Implications for Infectious Disease Transmission, Sarah N. Bevins, Scott Carver, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Mat Alldredge, Kenneth A. Logan, Seth P. D. Riley, Robert N. Fisher, T. Winston Vickers, Walter Boyce, Mo Salman, Michael R. Lappin, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Digging Behaviors Of Radio-Tagged Black-Footed Ferrets Near Meeteetse, Wyoming, 1981–1984, Dean E. Biggins, Louis R. Hanebury, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Exploiting Antipredator Behavior in White-Tailed Deer for Resource Protection, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Laura A. Tyson, Jerrold L. Belant, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Exploiting avian vision with aircraft lighting to reduce bird strikes, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, Patrice Baumhardt, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

A Perspective on Livestock–Wolf Interactions on Western Rangelands, Stewart Breck, Patrick Clark, Larry Howery, Douglas Johnson, Bryan Kluever, Samuel Smallidge, and Andres Cibils

Site-Occupancy Monitoring Of An Ecosystem Indicator: Linking Characteristics Of Riparian Vegetation To Beaver Occurrence, Stewart W. Breck, Michael I. Goldstein, and Sanjay Pyare

Dissecting a wildlife disease hotspot: the impact of multiple host species, environmental transmission and seasonality in migration, breeding and mortality, Vicki L. Brown, John M. Drake, David E. Stallknecht, Justin D. Brown, Kerri Pedersen, and Pejman Rohani

Preliminary Assessment of the HogHopper™ for Excluding Non-Target Wildlife, Tyler A. Campbell, Michael J. Bodenchuk, John D. Eisemann, Steven J. Lapidge, Linton Staples, and Phil Morrow

Impact of baiting on feral swine behavior in the presence of culling activities, Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, Michael J. Lavelle, Bruce R. Leland, Terry L. Blankenship, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

The effect of European starlings and ambient air temperature on Salmonella enterica contamination within cattle feed bunks, James C. Carlson, Jeremy W. Ellis, Shelagh K. Tupper, Alan B. Franklin, and George M. Linz

Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes, Scott Carver, Andrea V. Scorza, Sarah N. Bevins, Seth P. D. Riley, Kevin R. Crooks, Sue VandeWoude, and Michael R. Lappin

Association of Wild Bird Density and Farm Management Factors with the Prevalence of E. coli O157 in Dairy Herds in Ohio (2007–2009), N. Cernicchiaro, D. L. Pearl, S. A. McEwen, L. Harpster, H. J. Homan, G. M. Linz, and J. T. LeJeune

Efficacy of aerial broadcast baiting in reducing brown treesnake numbers, Larry Clark and Peter J. Savarie

Efficacy, effort, and cost comparisons of trapping and acetaminophen-baiting for control of brown treesnakes on Guam, Larry Clark, Peter J. Savarie, John A. Shivik, Stewart W. Breck, and Brian S. Dorr

Identification and Analysis of the First 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus from U.S. Feral Swine, A. Clavijo, Amir Nikooienejad, M. S. Esfahani, Richard P. Metz, Scott Schwartz, Esmaeli Atashpaz-Gargari, Thomas J. Deliberto, M. W. Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, L. R. Bazan, L. G. Koster, M. Jenkins-Moore, S. L. Swenson, M. Zhang, T. Beckham, Charles D. Johnson, and Mohammad Bounpheng

Colony Connectivity of Pacific Coast Double-Crested Cormorants Based on Post-Breeding Dispersal From the Region’s Largest Colony, Karen N. Courtot, Daniel D. Roby, Jessica Y. Adkins, Donald E. Lyons, D. Tommy King, and R. Scott Larsen

Pond-Level Risk Factors Associated with Columnaris Disease on Mississippi Commercial Catfish Farms, Fred L. Cunningham, Skip W. Jack, David Hardin, and Robert W. Wills

Spatial and temporal comparisons of double-crested cormorant diets following the establishment of alewife in Lake Champlain, USA, Robin L. DeBruyne, Travis L. DeVault, Adam E. Duerr, David E. Capen, Fred E. Pogmore, James R. Jackson, and Lars G. Rudstam

Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production, Travis L. DeVault, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, James A. Martin, Jason A. Schmidt, Loren Wes Burger Jr, and James W. Patterson Jr.

Reducing Impacts of Double-crested Cormorants to Natural Resources in Central New York: A Review of a Collaborative Research, Management, and Monitoring Program, Travis L. DeVault, Richard B. Chipman, Scott C. Barras, Jimmy D. Taylor, Carl P. Cranker III, Elizabeth M. Cranker, and James F. Farquhar

Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Cormorant and Gull Species in the United States in 2010, Diego G. Diel, Patti J. Miller, Paul C. Wolf, Randall M. Mickley, Anthony R. Musante, Daniel C. Emanueli, Kirk J. Shively, Kerri Pedersen, and Claudio L. Afonso

Double-Crested Cormorant Distribution on Catfish Aquaculture in the Yazoo River Basin of Mississippi, Brian S. Dorr, Loren W. Burger, Scott C. Barras, and Kristina Casscles Godwin

Economic Impact of Double-Crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, Depredation on Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Aquaculture in Mississippi, USA, Brian S. Dorr, Loren Wes Burger Jr, Scott Barras, and Kristina Casscles-Godwin