The mission of USDA APHIS Wildlife Services (WS) is to provide Federal leadership and expertise to resolve wildlife conflicts to allow people and wildlife to coexist. WS conducts program delivery, research, and other activities through its Regional and State Offices, the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) and its Field Stations, as well as through its National Programs.

This site contains publications of WS or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses, Suxiang Tong, Xueyong Zhu, Yan Li, Mang Shi, Jing Zhang, Melissa Bourgeois, Hua Yang, Xianfeng Chen, Sergio Recuenco, Jorge Gomez, Li-Mei Chen, Adam Johnson, Ying Tao, Cyrille Dreyfus, Wenli Yu, Ryan McBride, Paul J. Carney, Amy T. Gilbert, Jessie Chang, Zhu Guo, Charles T. Davis, James C. Paulson, James Stevens, Charles E. Rupprecht, Edward C. Holmes, Ian A. Wilson, and Ruben O. Donis

West Nile Virus Infection in American Robins: New Insights on Dose Response, Kaci K. VanDalen, Jeffrey S. Hall, Larry Clark, Robert G. McLean, and Cynthia Smeraski

Concomitant administration of GonaConTMand rabies vaccine infemale dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico, Fernando Vargas-Pino, Verónica Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Erick J. Canales-Vargas, Luis R. Gress-Ortega, Lowell A. Miller, C. E. Rupprecht, Scott C. Bender, Patricia García-Reyna, Juan Ocampo-López, and Dennis Slate

Excluding Mammals from Airports, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, and Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 5 Excluding Mammals from Airports, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, and Thomas W. Seamans

Chapter 2 Spatial patterns for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 3 Physical causes and consequences for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 4 Biological consequences for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 5 Biotic interactions and temporal patterns forLandslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 6 Living with landslides for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Chapter 7 Large scales and future directions for landslide ecology from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Color Plates from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Glossary from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Index from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Introduction for Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Lanslide Ecology: Cover, Contents, Preface, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

References from Landslide Ecology, Lawrence R. Walker and Aaron B. Shiels

Changes in abiotic influences on seed plants and ferns during 18 years of primary succession on Puerto Rican landslides, Lawrence R. Walker, Aaron B. Shiels, Peter J. Bellingham, Ashley D. Sparrow, Ned Fetcher, Fred H. Landau, and Deborah J. Lodge

Topographic Home Range of Large Mammals: Is Planimetric Home Range Still a Viable Method?, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, Teresa J. Frink, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Jonathan A. Jenks, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan, W. D. Walter, Justin W. Fischer, C. W. Anderson, D. R. Marks, T. J. Deliberto, S. Robbe-Austerman, and K. C. VerCauteren

Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan, W. D. Walter, J. W. Fischer, C. W. Anderson, D. R. Marks, T. J. Deliberto, S. Robbe-Austerman, and K. C. VerCauteren

Evolutionary Characterization of the Pandemic H1N1/ 2009 Influenza Virus in Humans Based on Non-Structural Genes, Chengmin Wang, Yanyu Zhang, Bin Wu, Shelan Liu, Ping Xu, Yanmin Lu, Jing Luo, Dale L. Nolte, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Mingxing Duan, Hong Zhang, and Hongxuan He

Detection of African swine fever virus-like sequences in ponds in the Mississippi Delta through metagenomic sequencing, Xiu-Feng Wan, J. Lamar Barnett, Fred Cunningham, Si Chen, Guohua Yang, Shannon Nash, Li-Pong Long, Lorelei Ford, Sherry Blackmon, Yan Zhang, Larry Hanson, and Qiang He

FORAGING ECOLOGY OF FOUR GULL SPECIES AT A COASTAL–URBAN INTERFACE, Brian E. Washburn, Glen E. Bernhardt, Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, Richard B. Chipman, and Laura C. Francoeur

Wildlife strikes to civil helicopters in the US, 1990–2011, Brian E. Washburn, Paul Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

Managing Turfgrass to Reduce Wildlife Hazards at Airports, Brian E. Washburn and Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 10 Managing Turfgrass to Reduce Wildlife Hazards at Airports, Brian E. Washburn and Thomas W. Seamans

Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys, Scott J. Werner, Richard Buchholz, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. T. Pettit, and Jeremy W. Ellis

Evaluating Habitat Manipulations and Rodenticides to Protect Seedlings from Rodent Damage at Restored Landfills in New York, Gary W. Witmer

The effects of vitamin K1-rich plant foods on the efficacy of the anticoagulant rodenticides chlorophacinone and diphacinone, used against Montane Voles (Microtus montanus), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Estimating Prion Adsorption Capacity of Soil by BioAssay of Subtracted Infectivity from Complex Solutions (BASICS), A. Christy Wyckoff, Krista L. Lockwood, Crystal Meyerett-Reid, Brady A. Michel, Heather Bender, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Mark D. Zabel

Mutation from arginine to lysine at the position 189 of hemagglutinin contributes to the antigenic drift in H3N2 swine influenza viruses, Jianqiang Ye, Yifei Xu, Jillian Harris, Hailiang Sun, Andrew S. Bowman, Fred L. Cunningham, Carol Cardona, Kyoungjin J. Yoon, Richard D. Slemons, and Xiu-Feng Wan


Chapter 4: Top-Predators as Biodiversity Regulators: Contemporary Issues Affecting Knowledge and Management of Dingoes in Australia, Benjamin L.R. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Matt Hayward, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew B. Allison, Dennis J. Kohler, Karen A. Fox, Justin D. Brown, Richard W. Gerhold, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Edward J. Dubovi, Colin R. Parrish, and Edward C. Holmes

The Net Benefits of Controlling Bird and Rodent Pests in Wine Grape and Avocado Production, Aaron M, Anderson; Katy Kirkpatrick; and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Economic Evaluation of Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus) Rabies Prevention in Mexico, Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, A. J. Ramırez, Steven S. Shwiff, Dennis Kohler, and Luis Lecuona

Crow Pellets from Winter Roosts in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Mary Annala, Eric A. Tillman, Gregory A. Backus, Kandy L. Keacher, and Michael L. Avery


Biology of Invasive Monk Parakeets in South Florida, Michael L. Avery, Eric A. Tillman, Kandy L. Keacher, John E. Arnett, and Kelli J. Lundy

Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas (Caribbean tree frog), Karen H. Beard and William C. Pitt

A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Raccoon Abundance: Implications for Disease Vaccination Programs, James C. Beasley, William S. Beatty, Todd C. Atwood, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Carrion cycling in food webs: comparisons among terrestrial and marine ecosystems, James C. Beasley, Z. H. Olson, and T. L. DeVault

Genetic structure of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population inhabiting a fragmented agricultural ecosystem, William S. Beatty, James C. Beasley, Guha Dharmarajan, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

A Novel Isoflurane Anesthesia Induction System for Raccoons, Kevin T. Bentler, Daniel N. Gossett, and J. Jeffrey Root

Survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection in African lion (Panthera leo), African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, Are R. Berentsen, Matthew S. Becker, Heather Stockdale-Walden, Wigganson Matandiko, Rachel McRobb, and Mike R. Dunbar

Influence of Forest Structure on the Abundance of Snowshoe Hares in Western Wyoming, Nathan D. Berg, Eric M. Gese, John Squires, and Lise M. Aubry

Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010, Thomas E. Besser, Margaret A. Highland, Katherine Baker, E. Frances Cassirer, Neil J. Anderson, Jennifer M. Ramsey, Kristin Mansfield, Darren L. Bruning, Peregrine Wolff, Joshua B. Smith, and Jonathan A. Jenks

Yersinia pestis: examining wildlife plague surveillance in China and the USA, Sarah N. Bevins, John A. Baroch, Dale L. Nolte, Min Zhang, and Hongxuan He

Three Pathogens in Sympatric Populations of Pumas, Bobcats, and Domestic Cats: Implications for Infectious Disease Transmission, Sarah N. Bevins, Scott Carver, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Mat Alldredge, Kenneth A. Logan, Seth P. D. Riley, Robert N. Fisher, T. Winston Vickers, Walter Boyce, Mo Salman, Michael R. Lappin, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Digging Behaviors Of Radio-Tagged Black-Footed Ferrets Near Meeteetse, Wyoming, 1981–1984, Dean E. Biggins, Louis R. Hanebury, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Exploiting Antipredator Behavior in White-Tailed Deer for Resource Protection, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Laura A. Tyson, Jerrold L. Belant, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Exploiting avian vision with aircraft lighting to reduce bird strikes, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, Patrice Baumhardt, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

A Perspective on Livestock–Wolf Interactions on Western Rangelands, Stewart W. Breck, Patrick Clark, Larry Howery, Douglas Johnson, Bryan Kluever, Samuel Smallidge, and Andres Cibils

Site-Occupancy Monitoring Of An Ecosystem Indicator: Linking Characteristics Of Riparian Vegetation To Beaver Occurrence, Stewart W. Breck, Michael I. Goldstein, and Sanjay Pyare

Dissecting a wildlife disease hotspot: the impact of multiple host species, environmental transmission and seasonality in migration, breeding and mortality, Vicki L. Brown, John M. Drake, David E. Stallknecht, Justin D. Brown, Kerri Pedersen, and Pejman Rohani

Preliminary Assessment of the HogHopper™ for Excluding Non-Target Wildlife, Tyler A. Campbell, Michael J. Bodenchuk, John D. Eisemann, Steven J. Lapidge, Linton Staples, and Phil Morrow

Impact of baiting on feral swine behavior in the presence of culling activities, Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, Michael J. Lavelle, Bruce R. Leland, Terry L. Blankenship, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

The effect of European starlings and ambient air temperature on Salmonella enterica contamination within cattle feed bunks, James C. Carlson, Jeremy W. Ellis, Shelagh K. Tupper, Alan B. Franklin, and George M. Linz

Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes, Scott Carver, Andrea V. Scorza, Sarah N. Bevins, Seth P. D. Riley, Kevin R. Crooks, Sue VandeWoude, and Michael R. Lappin

Association of Wild Bird Density and Farm Management Factors with the Prevalence of E. coli O157 in Dairy Herds in Ohio (2007–2009), N. Cernicchiaro, D. L. Pearl, S. A. McEwen, L. Harpster, H. J. Homan, G. M. Linz, and J. T. LeJeune

Efficacy of aerial broadcast baiting in reducing brown treesnake numbers, Larry Clark and Peter J. Savarie

Efficacy, effort, and cost comparisons of trapping and acetaminophen-baiting for control of brown treesnakes on Guam, Larry Clark, Peter J. Savarie, John A. Shivik, Stewart W. Breck, and Brian S. Dorr

Identification and Analysis of the First 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus from U.S. Feral Swine, A. Clavijo, Amir Nikooienejad, M. S. Esfahani, Richard P. Metz, Scott Schwartz, Esmaeli Atashpaz-Gargari, Thomas J. Deliberto, M. W. Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, L. R. Bazan, L. G. Koster, M. Jenkins-Moore, S. L. Swenson, M. Zhang, T. Beckham, Charles D. Johnson, and Mohammad Bounpheng

Colony Connectivity of Pacific Coast Double-Crested Cormorants Based on Post-Breeding Dispersal From the Region’s Largest Colony, Karen N. Courtot, Daniel D. Roby, Jessica Y. Adkins, Donald E. Lyons, D. Tommy King, and R. Scott Larsen

Pond-Level Risk Factors Associated with Columnaris Disease on Mississippi Commercial Catfish Farms, Fred L. Cunningham, Skip W. Jack, David Hardin, and Robert W. Wills

Spatial and temporal comparisons of double-crested cormorant diets following the establishment of alewife in Lake Champlain, USA, Robin L. DeBruyne, Travis L. DeVault, Adam E. Duerr, David E. Capen, Fred E. Pogmore, James R. Jackson, and Lars G. Rudstam

Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production, Travis L. DeVault, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, James A. Martin, Jason A. Schmidt, Loren Wes Burger Jr, and James W. Patterson Jr.

Reducing Impacts of Double-crested Cormorants to Natural Resources in Central New York: A Review of a Collaborative Research, Management, and Monitoring Program, Travis L. DeVault, Richard B. Chipman, Scott C. Barras, Jimmy D. Taylor II, Carl P. Cranker III, Elizabeth M. Cranker, and James F. Farquhar

Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Cormorant and Gull Species in the United States in 2010, Diego G. Diel, Patti J. Miller, Paul C. Wolf, Randall M. Mickley, Anthony R. Musante, Daniel C. Emanueli, Kirk J. Shively, Kerri Pedersen, and Claudio L. Afonso

Double-Crested Cormorant Distribution on Catfish Aquaculture in the Yazoo River Basin of Mississippi, Brian S. Dorr, Loren W. Burger, Scott C. Barras, and Kristina Casscles Godwin

Economic Impact of Double-Crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, Depredation on Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Aquaculture in Mississippi, USA, Brian S. Dorr, Loren Wes Burger Jr, Scott Barras, and Kristina Casscles-Godwin

Management of double-crested cormorants to improve sport fi sheries in Michigan: three case studies, Brian S. Dorr, Shauna L. Hanisch, Peter H. Butchko, and David G. Fielder

The Direction of Research and Management of Double-crested Cormorants Heading into the 2000s: Symposium Overview and Future Information Needs, Brian S. Dorr and Christopher Somers

Summer and Migrational Movements of Satellite-Marked Doublecrested Cormorants from a Breeding Colony Managed by Egg-Oiling in Lake Ontario, USA, Brian S. Dorr, Jimmy D. Taylor II, Scott J. Werner, D. Tommy King, James F. Farquhar, Irene M. Mazzocchi, and Russell D. McCullough

Seasonal Variation of Coyote Diet in Northwestern Wyoming: Implications for Dietary Overlap with Canada Lynx?, Jennifer L. B. Dowd and Eric M. Gese

Ecology And Geography Of Human Monkeypox Case Occurrences Across Africa, Christine K. Ellis, Darin S. Carroll, Ryan R. Lash, A. Townsend Peterson, Inger K. Damon, Jean Malekani, and Pierre Formenty

Toxoplasma gondii in Circumpolar People and Wildlife, Stacey A. Elmore, Emily J. Jenkins, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Lydden Polley, J. Jeffrey Root, and Chester G. Moore

Feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites, Richard M. Engeman, Kathy J. Couturier, Rodney K. Felix Jr., and Michael L. Avery

Egg Oiling to Reduce Hatch-Year Ring-Billed Gull Numbers on Chicago’s Beaches During Swim Season and Water Quality Test Results, Richard M. Engeman, John W. Hartmann, Scott F. Beckerman, Thomas W. Seamans, and Sarah Abu-Absi

Rats! Foiled Again: A History of Rodent Control Methods Development at the National Wildlife Research Center, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Michael W. Fall, Gary W. Witmer, and William C. Pitt

Wildlife Services—A Leader in Developing Tools and Techniques for Managing Carnivores, Kathleen A. Fagerstone and Gail Keirn

Environmental and Demographic Determinants of Avian Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl across the Contiguous United States, Matthew Farnsworth, Ryan S. Miller, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Seth R. Swafford, Philip D. Riggs, and Colleen T. Webb

Mitigation of Double-crested Cormorant Impacts on Lake Ontario: From Planning and Practice to Product Delivery, James F. Farquhar, Irene M. Mazzocchi, Russell D. McCullough, Richard B. Chipman, and Travis L. DeVault

Weak Polygyny in California Sea Lions and the Potential for Alternative Mating Tactics, Ramona Flatz, Manuela González-Suárez, Julie K. Young, Claudia J. Hernández-Camacho, Aaron J. Immel, and Leah R. Gerber

The status of Canada Goose Branta canadensis subspecies in Greenland, Anthony D. Fox, David Sinnett, John A. Baroch, David A. Stroud, Kaj Kampp, Carsten Egevang, and David Boertmann

Mucosal Adjuvants to Improve Wildlife Rabies Vaccination, Tricia Fry, Kaci K. VanDalen, Jerome Hurley, and Paul Nash

Using radio-telemetry to assess the risk European starlings pose in pathogen transmission among feedlots, Shannon M. Gaukler, H. Jeffrey Homan, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Designing a monitoring plan, Eric M. Gese, Hilary S. Cooley, and Frederick F. Knowlton

Effectiveness of Theobromine and Caffeine Mixtures in Coyote Lure Operative Devices as a Predacide: A Simulated Field Study, Eric M. Gese, Patrick A. Darrow, John A. Shivik, Bruce A. Kimball, John D. Eisemann, and Julie K. Young

Influence of the urban matrix on space use of coyotes in the Chicago metropolitan area, Eric M. Gese, Paul S. Morey, and Stanley D. Gehrt

Do gastrointestinal taste receptors contribute to associative learning and foraging behavior?, G. J. Golden, A. M. Hussey, and B. A. Kimball

Towards optimized population control efficiency in space and time: A modelling framework adapted to a colonial waterbird, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, and Guiming Wang

Widespread avian bornavirus infection in mute swans in the Northeast United States, Jianhua Guo, Lina Covaleda, J Jill Heatley, John A. Baroch, Ian Tizard, and Susan L. Payne

Influenza Exposure In United States Feral Swine Populations, Jeffrey S. Hall, Richard B. Minnis, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott Barras, Randy W. DeYoung, Kristy Pabilonia, Michael L. Avery, Heather Sullivan, Larry Clark, and Robert G. McLean

Report to the City of Chicago on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2011 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, J. W. Hartmann, S. F. Beckerman, R. M. Engeman, T. W. Seamans, and S. Abu-Absi

Deer-Activated Bio-Acoustic Frightening Device Deters White-tailed Deer, Aaron M. Hildreth, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Surveillance for Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007–10, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Solvej Østergaard Breum, Ramona Trebbien, Kurt Jensen Handberg, Ole Roland Therkildsen, Jesper Johannes Madsen, Kasper Thorup, John A. Baroch, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Lars Erik Larsen, and Poul Henrik Jørgensen

Site Use of European Starlings Wintering in Central New Jersey, H. Jeffrey Homan, Anthony A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, George M. Linz, and Wendy Anderson

Band Encounters of Wintering European Starlings Captured in Kansas, Nebraska, and Texas, H. Jeffrey Homan, James R. Thiele, Garrett W. Unrein, Shannon M. Gaukler, Anthony A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, and George M. Linz