The mission of USDA APHIS Wildlife Services (WS) is to provide Federal leadership and expertise to resolve wildlife conflicts to allow people and wildlife to coexist. WS conducts program delivery, research, and other activities through its Regional and State Offices, the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) and its Field Stations, as well as through its National Programs.

This site contains publications of WS or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


Anthropogenic Conditioning of Gray Jays to a Nutritious, Seasonal Aquatic Food Source, R. M. Engeman and C. J. Wiloth

Wildlife Damage Management: Changes over the Last 40 Years and a Look at the Future, Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Fine-scale, spatial and temporal assessment methods for feral swine disturbances to sensitive plant communities in south-central Florida, Rodney K. Felix Jr., Steve L. Orzell, Eric A. Tillman, Richard M. Engeman, and Michael L. Avery

Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011–2012, Zhixin Feng, John A. Baroch, Li-Ping Long, Yifei Xu, Frederick L. Cunningham, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Brandon S. Schmidt, Andrew S. Bowman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Optimization of Formulations for the Lethal Control of Feral Pigs, Justin A. Foster, James C. Martin, Kurt . C. VerCauteren, Greg E. Phillips, and John D. Eisemann

Does Habitat Heterogeneity in a Multi-Use Landscape Influence Survival Rates and Density of a Native Mesocarnivore?, Eric M. Gese and Craig M. Thompson

A Recent Epizootic of Skunk Rabies and Associated Spillover in Northern Colorado, USA, Amy Gilbert, Dennis Kohler, Tara Rigg, Justin W. Fischer, Terry Spraker, Karen Fox, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Determination of residue levels of alphachloralose in duck tissues, David A. Goldade, Randal S. Stahl, and John J. Johnston

Crossing the Interspecies Barrier: Opening the Door to Zoonotic Pathogens, Christian Gortazar, Leslie A. Reperant, Thijs Kuiken, Jose de la Fuente, Mariana Boadella, Beatriz Martinez-Lopez, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Agusitn Estrada-Pena, Christian Drosten, Graham Medley, Richard Ostfeld, Townsend Peterson, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Christian Menge, Marc Artois, Constance Schultsz, Richard Delahay, Jordi Sierra-Cobo, Robert Poulin, Frederic Keck, Alonso A. Aguirre, Heikki Henttonen, Andrew P. Dobson, Susan Kutz, Juan Lubroth, and Atle Mysterud

The Wake Island Rodent Eradication: Part Success, Part Failure, but Wholly Instructive, Richard Griffiths, Alex Wegmann, Chad Hanson, Brad Keitt, Gregg Howald, Derek Brown, Bernie Tershy, William Pitt, Matthew Moran, Kristen Rex, Susan White, Beth Flint, and Nick Torr

The Cumulative Effects of Management on the Population Dynamics of the Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus in the Great Lakes, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, Guiming Wang, and Terry J. Doyle

Genetic analysis of a Bison bison herd derived from the Yellowstone National Park population, Julia A. Herman, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Natalie D. Halbert, Jack C. Rhyan, and M. D. Salman

Surveillance of feral swine for Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasmagondii in the USA and host-related factors associatedwith infection, D. E. Hill, J. P. Dubey, J. A. Baroch, S. R. Swafford, V. F. Fournet, D. Hawkins-Cooper, D. G. Pyburn, B. S. Schmit, H. R. Gamble, K. Pedersen, L. R. Ferreira, S. K. Verma, Y. Ying, O. C. H. Kwok, H. Feidas, and G. Theodoropoulos

The socioecology of Monk Parakeets: Insights into parrot social complexity, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Michael L. Avery, and Timonthy F. Wright

Environmental Contaminant Concentrations in Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) Muscle: Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Human Consumers, Katherine E. Horak, Richard Chipman, Lisa Murphy, and John Johnston


Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage, 5th Edition, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Robert M. Timm, Paul D. Curtis, Dale L. Nolte, Mark E. Tobin, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluating the Effect of Short-Term Capture and Handling on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite Levels in Mourning Doves, D. S. Jachowski, T. W. Wong, B. E. Washburn, J. H. Schulz, and J. J. Millspaugh

Evaluation of Techniques to Reduce Deer and Elk Damage to Agricultural Crops, Heather E. Johnson, Justin W. Fischer, Matthew Hammond, Patricia D. Dorsey, W. David Walter, Charles Anderson, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Immunization Alters Body Odor, Bruce A. Kimball, Maryanne Opiekun, Kunio Yamazaki, and Gary K. Beauchamp

A Conceptual Model for the Impact of Climate Change on Fox Rabies in Alaska, 1980–2010, B. I. Kim, J. D. Blanton, A. T. Gilbert, L. Castrodale, K. Hueffer, D. Slate, and C. E. Rupprecht

Coqui frog populations are negatively affected by canopy opening but not detritus deposition following an experimental hurricane in a tropical rainforest, Paul D. Klawinski, Ben Dalton, and Aaron B. Shiels

Efficacy and Health Effects of a Wildlife Immunocontraceptive Vaccine on Fox Squirrels, Sara K. Krause, Douglas A. Kelt, James P. Gionfriddo, and Dirk H. Van Vuren

Regulation of tree squirrel populations with immunocontraception: a fox squirrel example, Sara K. Krause, Douglas A. Kelt, Dirk H. Van Vuren, and James P. Gionfriddo

Mineral licks: motivational factors for visitation and accompanying disease risk at communal use sites of elk and deer, Michael J. Lavelle, Gregory E. Phillips, Justin W. Fischer, Patrick W. Burke, Nathan W. Seward, Randal S. Stahl, Tracy A. Nichols, Bruce A. Wunder, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evolution of Puma Lentivirus in Bobcats (Lynx rufus) and Mountain Lions (Puma concolor) in North America, Justin S. Lee, Sarah N. Bevins, Laurel E. K. Serleys, Winston Vickers, Ken A. Logan, Mat Aldredge, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Roy McBride, Melody Roelke-Parker, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Jennifer L. Troyer, Seth P. Riley, Walter M. Boyce, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Modeling black bear population dynamics in a human-dominated stochastic environment, D. L. Lewis, S. W. Breck, K. R. Wilson, and C. T. Webb

Potential Use of Perennial Sunflower to Reduce Blackbird Damage to Sunflower, George M. Linz, Brent Hulke, Michael Kantar, Jeffrey Homan, Robert Stupar, and Donald Wyse


Effectiveness of Foliar Applications of 9,10-Anthraquinone for Reducing Blackbird Damage to Sunflower, George M. Linz, Scott J. Werner, Megan Niner, and Jeffrey Homan

The evolution of self-control, Evan L. MacLean, Brian Hare, Charles L. Nunn, Elsa Addessi, Federica Amici, Rindy C. Anderson, Filippo Aureli, Joseph M. Baker, Amanda E. Bania, Allison M. Barnard, Neeltje J. Boogert, Elizabeth M. Brannon, Emily E. Bray, Joel Bray, Lauren J. N. Brent, Judith M. Burkart, Josep Call, Jessica F. Cantlon, Lucy G. Cheke, Nicola S. Clayton, Mikel M. Delgado, Louis J. DiVindenti, Kazuo Fujita, Esther Herrmann, Chihiro Hiramatsu, Lucia F. Jacobs, Kerry E. Jordan, Jennifer R. Laude, Kristin L. Leimgruber, Emily J. E. Messer, Antonio C. de A. Moura, Ljerka Ostojic, Alejandra Picard, Michael L. Platt, Joshua M. Plotnik, Friederike Range, Simon M. Reader, Rachna B. Reddy, Aaron A. Sandel, Laurie R. Santos, Katrin Schumann, Amanda M. Seed, Kendra B. Sewall, Rachael C. Shaw, Katie E. Slocombre, Yanjie Su, Ayaka Takimoto, Jingzhi Tan, Ruoting Tao, Carel P. van Schaik, Zsofia Viranyi, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Jordan C. Wade, Arii Watanabe, Janes Widness, Julie K. Young, Thomas R. Zentall, and Yini Zhao

Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans), Salif Mahamane, Kevin L. Grunig, Joseph Baker, Julie K. Young, and Kerry E. Jordan

THE SPRING MIGRATION OF ADULT NORTH AMERICAN OSPREYS, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., Brian E. Washburn, John E. Elliott, Charles J. Henry, Robert S. Kennedy, and Iain MacLeod

Novel Management Methods: Immunocontraception and Other Fertility Control Tools, Giovanna Massei, Dave Cowan, and Douglas C. Eckery

Mitochondrial Diversity Supports Multiple Origins for Invasive Pigs, Blake E. McCann, Mathew J. Malek, Robert A. Newman, Brandon S. Schmit, Seth R. Swafford, Richard A. Sweitzer, and Rebecca B. Simmons

Movement characteristics of American beavers (Castor canadensis), Lance F. McClintic, Guiming Wang, Jimmy D. Taylor II, and Jeanne C. Jones

Effects of spatiotemporal resource heterogeneity on home range size of American beaver, L. F. McClintic, J. D. Taylor II, J. C. Jones, R. D. Singleton, and G. Wang

Production of Hybrids Between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes, L. David Mech, Bruce W. Christensen, Cheryl S. Asa, Margaret Callahan, and Julie K. Young

Efficacy of Ropel® as a coyote repellent, Elizabeth A. Miller, Julie K. Young, Scott Stelting, and Bruce A. Kimball

First Reports of Pseudorabies and Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) Associated with an Emerging Feral Swine (Sus scrofa) Population in New Hampshire, Anthony R. Musante, Kerri Pedersen, and Parker Hall

Fitting outbreak models to data from many small norovirus outbreaks, Eamon B. O'Dea, Kim M. Pepin, Ben A. Lopman, and Claus O. Wilke

Morphologic and Molecular Identifications of Digenetic Trematodes in Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Mississippi Delta, USA, Mary O'Hear, Linda Pote, Marlena Yost, Cynthia Doffitt, D. Tommy King, and Carla Panuska

The Scent of Disease: Human Body Odor Contains an Early Chemosensory Cue of Sickness, Mats J. Olsson, Johan N. Lundstrom, Bruce A. Kimball, Amy R. Gordon, Bianka Karshikoff, Nishteman Hosseini, Kimmo Sorjonen, Caroline Olgart Hoglund, Carmen Solares, Anne Soop, John Axelsson, and Mats Lekander

Environmental Salmonella in Agricultural Fair Poultry Exhibits in Colorado, K. L. Pabilonia, K. J. Cadmus, T. M. Lingus, D. S. Bolte, M. M. Russell, D. C. Van Metre, and M. M. Erdman

Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) against Mycobacterium bovis, M. V. Palmer, M. R. Stafne, W. R. Waters, T. C. Thacker, and G. E. Phillips

Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 1 (Newcastle Disease Virus), Avian Influenza Virus, and Salmonella spp. in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the United States, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Dustin M. Arsnoe, Claudio L. Afonso, Sarah N. Bevins, Patti J. Miller, Adam R. Randall, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Short Report: Antibody Prevalence of Select Arboviruses in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the United States, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Dustin M. Arsnoe, Sarah N. Bevins, Eryu Wang, Scott C. Weaver, Randall M. Mickley, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Identification of Brucella suis from Feral Swine in Selected States in the USA, Kerri Pedersen, Christine R. Quance, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Antionette J. Piaggio, Sarah N. Bevins, Samuel M. Goldstein, Wesson D. Gaston, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Using Quantitative Disease Dynamics as a Tool for Guiding Response to Avian Influenza in Poultry in the United States of America, K. M. Pepin, E. Spackman, J. D. Brown, K. L. Pabilonia, Lindsey P. Garber, J. Todd Weaver, D. A. Kennedy, Kelly A. Patyk, K. P. Huyvaert, Ryan S. Miller, Alan B. Franklin, Kerri Pedersen, T. L. Bogich, P. Rohani, Susan A. Shriner, Colleen T. Webb, and S. Riley

Iophenoxic Acid and Rhodamine B as Biomarkers of Bovine Tuberculosis Vaccine Bait Uptake by White-tailed Deer, Gregory E. Phillips, David A. Goldade, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Troy L. Ott, and Donald C. Wagner

Detecting an Elusive Invasive Species: A Diagnostic PCR to Detect Burmese Python in Florida Waters and an Assessment of Persistence of Environmental DNA, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Richard M. Engeman, Matthew W. Hopken, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, William E. Bruce, and Michael L. Avery

Invasive Vertebrate Species and the Challenges of Management, William C. Pitt and Gary W. Witmer

Potential Citric Acid Exposure and Toxicity to Hawaiian Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Associated with Eleutherodactylus Frog Control, William C. Pitt, Gary W. Witmer, Susan M. Jojola, and Hans Sin

Influence of habitat structure and food on patch choice ofcaptive coyotes, Sharon A. Poessel, Eric M. Gese, and Julie K. Young

Effects of GonaCon Immunocontraceptive Vaccine in Free-Ranging Female Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), Jenny G. Powers, Ryan J. Monello, Margaret A. Wild, Terry R. Spraker, James P. Gionfriddo, Terry M. Nett, and Dan L. Baker

Efficacy of Rodenticides for Roof Rat and Deer Mouse Control in Orchards, Niamh Niamh Quinn, David H. Davis, Richard M. Engeman, and Roger A. Baldwin

Toxicokinetics and Coagulopathy Threshold of the Rodenticide Diphacinone in Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Rebecca S. Lazarus, David A. Goldade, and John J. Johnston

Development of Dietary-Based Toxicity Reference Values to Assess the Risk of Chlorophacinone to Non-Target Raptorial Birds, Barnett A. Rattner, Rebecca S. Lazarus, Sandra L. Schultz, Katherine E. Horak, Benjamin G. Abbo, and Steven F. Volker

Ecological Routes of Avian Influenza Virus Transmission to a Common Mesopredator: An Experimental Evaluation of Alternatives, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Susan A. Shriner, Nicole L. Mooers, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Extended Viral Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus by Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis), J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Kevin T. Bentler, Thomas Gidlewski, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Terry R. Spraker, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in a Common Synanthropic Mammal – The Cottontail Rabbit, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Kevin T. Bentler, Thomas Gidlewski, Nicole L. Mooers, Terry R. Spraker, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment, Colin A. Russell, Peter M. Kasson, Ruben O. Donis, Steven Riley, John Dunbar, Andrew Rambaut, Jason Asher, Stephen Burke, C. Todd Davis, Rebecca J. Garten, Sandrasegaram Gnanakaran, Simon I. Hay, Sander Herfst, Nicola S. Lewis, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Catherine A. Macken, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Elizabeth Neuhaus, Colin R. Parrish, Kim M. Pepin, Samuel S. Shepard, David L. Smith, David L. Suarez, Susan C. Trock, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Dylan B. George, Marc Lipsitch, and Jesse D. Bloom

Using novel spatial mark–resight techniques to monitor resident Canada geese in a suburban environment, M. Elizabeth Rutledge, Rachel Sollmann, Brian E. Washburn, Christopher E. Moorman, and Christopher S. DePerno

Behavioral Traits and Airport Type Affect Mammal Incidents with U.S. Civil Aircraft, Kristin B. Schwarz, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. DeVault, and Guiming Wang

Diffusion of influenza viruses among migratory birds with a focus on the Southwest United States, Matthew Scotch, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Kristy L. Pabilonia, Theodore Anderson, John Baroch, Dennis Kohler, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Using sterilization to change predation rates of wild coyotes:A test case involving pronghorn fawns, Renee G. Seidler, Eric M. Gese, and Mary M. Conner

Parenteral administration of GnRH constructs and adjuvants: Immuneresponses and effects on reproductive tissues of male mice, Sameer Sharma, Ian McDonald, Lowell Martin, and Lyn A. Hinds

Understory fern community structure, growth and spore production responses to a large-scale hurricane experiment in a Puerto Rico rainforest, Joanne M. Sharpe and Aaron B. Shiels

Efficacy of Plastic Mesh Tubes in Reducing Herbivory Damage by the Invasive Nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an Urban Restoration Site, Trevor R. Sheffels, Mark D. Sytsma, Jacoby Carter, and Jimmy D. Taylor II

Trait-based plant mortality and preference for native versus non-native seedlings by invasive slug and snail herbivores in Hawaii, Aaron B. Shiels, Martin K. Ennis, and Laura Shiels

Understanding the key mechanisms of tropical forest responses to canopy loss and biomass deposition from experimental hurricane effects, Aaron B. Shiels and Grizelle Gonzalez

Responses to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest ecosystem: Synthesis from an experimental manipulation simulating effects of hurricane disturbance, Aaron B. Shiels, Grizelle González, and Michael R. Willig

A Review of Invasive Rodent (Rattus spp. and Mus musculus) Diets on Pacific Islands, Aaron B. Shiels and William C. Pitt

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 11. Rattus rattus, the Black Rat (Rodentia: Muridae), Aaron B. Shiels, William C. Pitt, Robert T. Sugihara, and Gary W. Witmer

Animal Attendance at M-44 Sodium Cyanide Ejector Sites for Coyotes, John A. Shivik, Lauren Mastro, and Julie K. Young

Safety And Immunogenicity Of Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (Onrab) In The First Us Field Trial In Raccoons (Procyon lotor), Dennis Slate, Richard B. Chipman, Timothy P. Algeo, Samuel A. Mills, Kathleen M. Nelson, Christopher K. Croson, Edward J. Dubovi, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Randall W. Renshaw, Todd Atwood, Shylo Johnson, and Charles E. Rupprecht

A landscape-based approach for delineating hotspots of wildlife-vehicle collisions, Nathan P. Snow, David M. Williams, and William F. Porter

Spatial Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Cattle in Relation to Night Roosts Of Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) in Ohio, USA (2007–2009), A. L. Swirski, D. L. Pearl, M. L. Williams, H. J. Homan, G. M. Linz, N. Cernicchiaro, and J. T. LeJeune

Evaluating SeaDust Wildlife Controllant™ as a Repellent to Reduce Deer Browse on Douglas-fir Seedlings, Jimmy D. Taylor II

Estimating the Total Economic Impact of Black Bear Peeling in Western Oregon Using GIS and REMI, Jimmy D. Taylor II, Anita Morzillo, and Aaron M. Anderson

The Evolution of Flow Devices Used to Reduce Flooding by Beavers: A Review, Jimmy D. Taylor II and Russell D. Singleton

An agent-based movement model to assess the impact of landscape fragmentation on disease transmission, Jeff A. Tracey, Sarah N. Bevins, Sue VandeWoude, and Kevin R. Crooks

European starling feeding activity on repellent treated crops and pellets, Shelagh K. Tupper, Scott J. Werner, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, John C. Wise, Catherine A. Lindell, and George M. Linz

Managing California Ground Squirrels on Levees Using Habitat Modification, Dirk Van Vuren, Miguel A. Ordeñana, Michael C. McGrann, and Are R. Berentsen

Use of Dogs in the Mediation of Conservation Conflicts, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, Jean-Marc Landry, Laurie Marker, and Thomas M. Gehring

Rat Density on Diego Garcia: Implications for Eradication Feasibility, Scott Vogt, Daniel S. Vice, William C. Pitt, Antenor Nestor Guzman, Ernesto J. Necessario, and Are R. Berentsen

Right Place, Wrong Species: A 20-Year Review of Rabies Virus Cross Species Transmission among Terrestrial Mammals in the United States, Ryan M. Wallace, Amy T. Gilbert, Dennis Slate, Richard Chipman, Amber Singh, Cassie Wedd, and Jesse D. Blanton

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis, W. David Walter, Rick Smith, Mike Vanderklok, and Kurt C. VerCauteren


Wildlife Strikes With Military Rotary-Wing Aircraft During Flight Operations Within the United States, Brian E. Washburn, Paul J. Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

WINTERING ECOLOGY OF ADULT NORTH AMERICAN OSPREYS, Brian E. Washburn, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., Charles J. Henny, Brian S. Dorr, and Thomas J. Olexa

Functional Significance of Ultraviolet Feeding Cues in Wild Turkeys, Scott J. Werner, Richard Buchholz, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, and Jeremy W. Ellis

Synergistic effect of an ultraviolet feeding cue for an avianrepellent and protection of agricultural crops, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Susan E. Pettit, and Anna M. Mangan

Perceived impacts of wild turkeys and management techniques for Wisconsin ginseng production, Scott J. Werner, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Julie L. Elser, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Susan E. Pettit, Jason Suckow, Robert C. Willging, Jim A. Tharman, and Joe Heil

Application Strategies for an Anthraquinone-Based Repellent to Protect Oilseed Sunflower Crops from Pest Blackbirds, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, James C. Carlson, David A. Goldade, Nicholas M. Hofmann, H. Jeffrey Homan, and George M. Linz

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa, Brianna M. Williams, Are Berentsen, Barbara C. Shock, Maria Teixiera, Michael R. Dunbar, Matthew S. Becker, and Michael J. Yabsley

Evaluating Habitat Manipulations and Rodenticides to Protect Seedlings from Rodent Damage at Restored Landfills in New York, Gary W. Witmer

New Rodenticides: An Update on Recent Research Trials, Gary W. Witmer, Katherine E. Horak, and Rachel Moulton

Improving Invasive House Mice Control and Eradication Strategies via More Effective Rodenticides, Gary W. Witmer and Rachael S. Moulton

An efficacy test of cholecalciferol plus diphacinone rodenticide baits for California voles (Microtus californicus Peale) to replace ineffective chlorophacinone baits, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael S. Moulton, and Roger A. Baldwin