National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

4101 LaPorte Avenue
Fort Collins, CO 80521
tel: (970) 266-6000 fax: (970) 266-6032

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas (Caribbean tree frog), Karen H. Beard and William C. Pitt

A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Raccoon Abundance: Implications for Disease Vaccination Programs, James C. Beasley, William S. Beatty, Todd C. Atwood, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Carrion cycling in food webs: comparisons among terrestrial and marine ecosystems, James C. Beasley, Z. H. Olson, and T. L. DeVault

Genetic structure of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population inhabiting a fragmented agricultural ecosystem, William S. Beatty, James C. Beasley, Guha Dharmarajan, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

A Novel Isoflurane Anesthesia Induction System for Raccoons, Kevin T. Bentler, Daniel N. Gossett, and J. Jeffrey Root

Survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection in African lion (Panthera leo), African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, Are R. Berentsen, Matthew S. Becker, Heather Stockdale-Walden, Wigganson Matandiko, Rachel McRobb, and Mike R. Dunbar

Influence of Forest Structure on the Abundance of Snowshoe Hares in Western Wyoming, Nathan D. Berg, Eric M. Gese, John Squires, and Lise M. Aubry

Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010, Thomas E. Besser, Margaret A. Highland, Katherine Baker, E. Frances Cassirer, Neil J. Anderson, Jennifer M. Ramsey, Kristin Mansfield, Darren L. Bruning, Peregrine Wolff, Joshua B. Smith, and Jonathan A. Jenks

Yersinia pestis: examining wildlife plague surveillance in China and the USA, Sarah N. Bevins, John A. Baroch, Dale L. Nolte, Min Zhang, and Hongxuan He

Three Pathogens in Sympatric Populations of Pumas, Bobcats, and Domestic Cats: Implications for Infectious Disease Transmission, Sarah N. Bevins, Scott Carver, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Mat Alldredge, Kenneth A. Logan, Seth P. D. Riley, Robert N. Fisher, T. Winston Vickers, Walter Boyce, Mo Salman, Michael R. Lappin, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Digging Behaviors Of Radio-Tagged Black-Footed Ferrets Near Meeteetse, Wyoming, 1981–1984, Dean E. Biggins, Louis R. Hanebury, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Exploiting Antipredator Behavior in White-Tailed Deer for Resource Protection, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Laura A. Tyson, Jerrold L. Belant, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Exploiting avian vision with aircraft lighting to reduce bird strikes, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, Patrice Baumhardt, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

A Perspective on Livestock–Wolf Interactions on Western Rangelands, Stewart W. Breck, Patrick Clark, Larry Howery, Douglas Johnson, Bryan Kluever, Samuel Smallidge, and Andres Cibils

Site-Occupancy Monitoring Of An Ecosystem Indicator: Linking Characteristics Of Riparian Vegetation To Beaver Occurrence, Stewart W. Breck, Michael I. Goldstein, and Sanjay Pyare

Dissecting a wildlife disease hotspot: the impact of multiple host species, environmental transmission and seasonality in migration, breeding and mortality, Vicki L. Brown, John M. Drake, David E. Stallknecht, Justin D. Brown, Kerri Pedersen, and Pejman Rohani

Preliminary Assessment of the HogHopper™ for Excluding Non-Target Wildlife, Tyler A. Campbell, Michael J. Bodenchuk, John D. Eisemann, Steven J. Lapidge, Linton Staples, and Phil Morrow

Impact of baiting on feral swine behavior in the presence of culling activities, Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, Michael J. Lavelle, Bruce R. Leland, Terry L. Blankenship, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

The effect of European starlings and ambient air temperature on Salmonella enterica contamination within cattle feed bunks, James C. Carlson, Jeremy W. Ellis, Shelagh K. Tupper, Alan B. Franklin, and George M. Linz

Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes, Scott Carver, Andrea V. Scorza, Sarah N. Bevins, Seth P. D. Riley, Kevin R. Crooks, Sue VandeWoude, and Michael R. Lappin

Association of Wild Bird Density and Farm Management Factors with the Prevalence of E. coli O157 in Dairy Herds in Ohio (2007–2009), N. Cernicchiaro, D. L. Pearl, S. A. McEwen, L. Harpster, H. J. Homan, G. M. Linz, and J. T. LeJeune

Efficacy of aerial broadcast baiting in reducing brown treesnake numbers, Larry Clark and Peter J. Savarie

Efficacy, effort, and cost comparisons of trapping and acetaminophen-baiting for control of brown treesnakes on Guam, Larry Clark, Peter J. Savarie, John A. Shivik, Stewart W. Breck, and Brian S. Dorr

Identification and Analysis of the First 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus from U.S. Feral Swine, A. Clavijo, Amir Nikooienejad, M. S. Esfahani, Richard P. Metz, Scott Schwartz, Esmaeli Atashpaz-Gargari, Thomas J. Deliberto, M. W. Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, L. R. Bazan, L. G. Koster, M. Jenkins-Moore, S. L. Swenson, M. Zhang, T. Beckham, Charles D. Johnson, and Mohammad Bounpheng

Colony Connectivity of Pacific Coast Double-Crested Cormorants Based on Post-Breeding Dispersal From the Region’s Largest Colony, Karen N. Courtot, Daniel D. Roby, Jessica Y. Adkins, Donald E. Lyons, D. Tommy King, and R. Scott Larsen

Pond-Level Risk Factors Associated with Columnaris Disease on Mississippi Commercial Catfish Farms, Fred L. Cunningham, Skip W. Jack, David Hardin, and Robert W. Wills

Spatial and temporal comparisons of double-crested cormorant diets following the establishment of alewife in Lake Champlain, USA, Robin L. DeBruyne, Travis L. DeVault, Adam E. Duerr, David E. Capen, Fred E. Pogmore, James R. Jackson, and Lars G. Rudstam

Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production, Travis L. DeVault, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, James A. Martin, Jason A. Schmidt, Loren Wes Burger Jr, and James W. Patterson Jr.

Reducing Impacts of Double-crested Cormorants to Natural Resources in Central New York: A Review of a Collaborative Research, Management, and Monitoring Program, Travis L. DeVault, Richard B. Chipman, Scott C. Barras, Jimmy D. Taylor II, Carl P. Cranker III, Elizabeth M. Cranker, and James F. Farquhar

Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Cormorant and Gull Species in the United States in 2010, Diego G. Diel, Patti J. Miller, Paul C. Wolf, Randall M. Mickley, Anthony R. Musante, Daniel C. Emanueli, Kirk J. Shively, Kerri Pedersen, and Claudio L. Afonso

Double-Crested Cormorant Distribution on Catfish Aquaculture in the Yazoo River Basin of Mississippi, Brian S. Dorr, Loren W. Burger, Scott C. Barras, and Kristina Casscles Godwin

Economic Impact of Double-Crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, Depredation on Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Aquaculture in Mississippi, USA, Brian S. Dorr, Loren Wes Burger Jr, Scott Barras, and Kristina Casscles-Godwin

Management of double-crested cormorants to improve sport fi sheries in Michigan: three case studies, Brian S. Dorr, Shauna L. Hanisch, Peter H. Butchko, and David G. Fielder

The Direction of Research and Management of Double-crested Cormorants Heading into the 2000s: Symposium Overview and Future Information Needs, Brian S. Dorr and Christopher Somers

Summer and Migrational Movements of Satellite-Marked Doublecrested Cormorants from a Breeding Colony Managed by Egg-Oiling in Lake Ontario, USA, Brian S. Dorr, Jimmy D. Taylor II, Scott J. Werner, D. Tommy King, James F. Farquhar, Irene M. Mazzocchi, and Russell D. McCullough

Seasonal Variation of Coyote Diet in Northwestern Wyoming: Implications for Dietary Overlap with Canada Lynx?, Jennifer L. B. Dowd and Eric M. Gese

Ecology And Geography Of Human Monkeypox Case Occurrences Across Africa, Christine K. Ellis, Darin S. Carroll, Ryan R. Lash, A. Townsend Peterson, Inger K. Damon, Jean Malekani, and Pierre Formenty

Toxoplasma gondii in Circumpolar People and Wildlife, Stacey A. Elmore, Emily J. Jenkins, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Lydden Polley, J. Jeffrey Root, and Chester G. Moore

Feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites, Richard M. Engeman, Kathy J. Couturier, Rodney K. Felix Jr., and Michael L. Avery

Egg Oiling to Reduce Hatch-Year Ring-Billed Gull Numbers on Chicago’s Beaches During Swim Season and Water Quality Test Results, Richard M. Engeman, John W. Hartmann, Scott F. Beckerman, Thomas W. Seamans, and Sarah Abu-Absi

Rats! Foiled Again: A History of Rodent Control Methods Development at the National Wildlife Research Center, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Michael W. Fall, Gary W. Witmer, and William C. Pitt

Wildlife Services—A Leader in Developing Tools and Techniques for Managing Carnivores, Kathleen A. Fagerstone and Gail Keirn

Environmental and Demographic Determinants of Avian Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl across the Contiguous United States, Matthew Farnsworth, Ryan S. Miller, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Seth R. Swafford, Philip D. Riggs, and Colleen T. Webb

Mitigation of Double-crested Cormorant Impacts on Lake Ontario: From Planning and Practice to Product Delivery, James F. Farquhar, Irene M. Mazzocchi, Russell D. McCullough, Richard B. Chipman, and Travis L. DeVault

Weak Polygyny in California Sea Lions and the Potential for Alternative Mating Tactics, Ramona Flatz, Manuela González-Suárez, Julie K. Young, Claudia J. Hernández-Camacho, Aaron J. Immel, and Leah R. Gerber

The status of Canada Goose Branta canadensis subspecies in Greenland, Anthony D. Fox, David Sinnett, John A. Baroch, David A. Stroud, Kaj Kampp, Carsten Egevang, and David Boertmann

Mucosal Adjuvants to Improve Wildlife Rabies Vaccination, Tricia Fry, Kaci K. VanDalen, Jerome Hurley, and Paul Nash

Using radio-telemetry to assess the risk European starlings pose in pathogen transmission among feedlots, Shannon M. Gaukler, H. Jeffrey Homan, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Designing a monitoring plan, Eric M. Gese, Hilary S. Cooley, and Frederick F. Knowlton

Effectiveness of Theobromine and Caffeine Mixtures in Coyote Lure Operative Devices as a Predacide: A Simulated Field Study, Eric M. Gese, Patrick A. Darrow, John A. Shivik, Bruce A. Kimball, John D. Eisemann, and Julie K. Young

Influence of the urban matrix on space use of coyotes in the Chicago metropolitan area, Eric M. Gese, Paul S. Morey, and Stanley D. Gehrt

Do gastrointestinal taste receptors contribute to associative learning and foraging behavior?, G. J. Golden, A. M. Hussey, and B. A. Kimball

Towards optimized population control efficiency in space and time: A modelling framework adapted to a colonial waterbird, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, and Guiming Wang

Widespread avian bornavirus infection in mute swans in the Northeast United States, Jianhua Guo, Lina Covaleda, J Jill Heatley, John A. Baroch, Ian Tizard, and Susan L. Payne

Influenza Exposure In United States Feral Swine Populations, Jeffrey S. Hall, Richard B. Minnis, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott Barras, Randy W. DeYoung, Kristy Pabilonia, Michael L. Avery, Heather Sullivan, Larry Clark, and Robert G. McLean

Report to the City of Chicago on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2011 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, J. W. Hartmann, S. F. Beckerman, R. M. Engeman, T. W. Seamans, and S. Abu-Absi

Deer-Activated Bio-Acoustic Frightening Device Deters White-tailed Deer, Aaron M. Hildreth, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Surveillance for Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007–10, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Solvej Østergaard Breum, Ramona Trebbien, Kurt Jensen Handberg, Ole Roland Therkildsen, Jesper Johannes Madsen, Kasper Thorup, John A. Baroch, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Lars Erik Larsen, and Poul Henrik Jørgensen

Site Use of European Starlings Wintering in Central New Jersey, H. Jeffrey Homan, Anthony A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, George M. Linz, and Wendy Anderson

Band Encounters of Wintering European Starlings Captured in Kansas, Nebraska, and Texas, H. Jeffrey Homan, James R. Thiele, Garrett W. Unrein, Shannon M. Gaukler, Anthony A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, and George M. Linz

Freshwater Clams As Bioconcentrators of Avian Influenza Virus in Water, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Jenny S. Carlson, Kevin T. Bentler, Kacy R. Cobble, Dale L. Nolte, and Alan B. Franklin

Environmental temperatures, physiology and behavior limit the range expansion of invasive Burmese pythons in southeastern USA, Elliott L.R. Jacobson, David G. Barker, Tracy M. Barker, Richard Mauldin, Michael L. Avery, Richard M. Engeman, and Stephen Secor

Quantitative PCR estimates Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) infection levels in semi-slugs (Parmarion martensi), Susan I. Jarvi, Margaret E.M. Farias, Kay Howe, Steven Jacquier, Robert Hollingsworth, and William Pitt

Phytochemical variation within a single plant species influences foraging behavior of deer, Bruce Kimball, John H. Russell, and Peter K. Ott

Migration Patterns of Double-crested Cormorants Wintering in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Bronson K. Strickland, and Andrew Radomski

Winter and Summer Home Ranges and Core Use Areas of Double-crested Cormorants Captured near Aquaculture Facilities in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Bronson K. Strickland, and Andrew A. Radomski

Antibodies to Avian Influenza Viruses in Canada Geese (Branta canadensis): A Potential Surveillance Tool?, Whitney M. Kistler, David E. Stallknecht, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Seth Swafford, Kerri Pedersen, Kyle Van Why, Paul C. Wolf, Jerry A. Hill, Darren L. Brunning, James C. Cumbee, Randall M. Mickley, Carl W. Betsill, Adam R. Randall, Roy D. Berghaus, and Michael J. Yabsley

Assessment of Bird Damage to Sunflower and Corn in North Dakota, Megan E. Klosterman, George M. Linz, Anthony A. Slowik, and William J. Bleier

Integrity and Retention of Ear-Tag Radiotransmitters in Domestic Cattle and Feral Horses, Bryan M. Kluever, Laura Lagos, Stewart W. Breck, Larry D. Howery, Manuel L. Sanmartín, David L. Bergman, and Felipe Bárcena

Effects of Intraguild Predation: Evaluating Resource Competition Between Two Canid Species With Apparent Niche Separation, Adam J. Kozlowski, Eric M. Gese, and Wendy M. Arjo

Development of a Feral Swine Toxic Bait (Hog-Gone®) and Bait Hopper (Hog-Hopper™) in Australia and the USA, Steven Lapidge, Jason Wishart, Linton Staples, Kathy Fagerstone, Tyler A. Campbell, and John D. Eisemann

Bird Management in Fruit Crops: How We Make Progress, Catherine A. Lindell, Stephani A. Shwiff, and Phillip H. Howard

Preliminary evaluation of 9,10 anthraquinone bird repellent for managing blackbird damage to ripening sunflower, George M. Linz and H. Jeffrey Homan

Sunflower Growers Use Nonlethal Methods to Manage Blackbird Damage, George M. Linz, H. Jeffrey Homan, Scott J. Werner, James C. Carlson, and William J. Bleier

Evaluation of elevated bait trays for attracting blackbirds (Icteridae) in central North Dakota, George M. Linz, Jamison B. Winter, and William J. Bleier

An Estimate of Avian Mortality at Communication Towers in the United States and Canada, Travis Longcore, Catherine Rich, Pierre Mineau, Beau MacDonald, Daniel G. Bert, Lauren M. Sullivan, Erin Mutrie, Sidney A. Gauthreaux Jr., Robert L. Crawford, Michael L. Avery, Albert M. Manville II, Emilie R. Travis, and David Drake

Box Traps for Feral Swine Capture: A Comparison of Gate Styles in Texas, David B. Long and Tyler A. Campbell

Long-term effects of immunocontraception on wild boar fertility, physiology and behaviour, Giovanna Massei, Dave P. Cowan, Julia Coats, Fiona Bellamy, Roger Quy, Stephane Pietravalle, Matthew Brash, and Lowell A. Miller

Long-term effects of immunocontraception on wild boar fertility, physiology and behaviour, Giovanna Massei, Dave P. Cowan, Julia Coats, Fiona Bellamy, Roger Quy, Stéphane Pietravalle, Matthew Brash, and Lowell A. Miller

Coyote (Canis latrans), 100+ Years in the East: A Literature Review, Lauren L. Mastro, Eric M. Gese, Julie K. Young, and John A. Shivik

What Do We Know? A Literature Review of the Eastern Coyote, Lauren L. Mastro, Eric M. Gese, Julie K. Young, and John A. Shivik

Boiga Irregularis (Brown Treesnake), Tom Mathies, William C. Pitt, and Joseph A. Rabon

The use of DiazaCon™ to limit fertility by reducing serum cholesterol in female grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, Brenda A. Mayle, Mark Ferryman, Andrew Peace, Christi A. Yoder, Lowell A. Miller, and David Cowan

HOME RANGES OF THE NILGAI ANTELOPE (BOSELAPHUS TRAGOCAMELUS) IN TEXAS, Jonathan D. Moczygemba, David G. Hewitt, Tyler A. Campbell, J. Alfonso Ortega-S., Justin Feild, and Mickey W. Hellickson

Oblique color vision in an open-habitat bird: spectral sensitivity, photoreceptor distribution and behavioral implications, Bret A. Moore, Patrice Baumhardt, Megan Doppler, Jacquelyn Randolet, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, Ellis R. Loew, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Historical Records Of Passerine Introductions To New Zealand Fail To Support The Propagule Pressure Hypothesis, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., and Michael L. Avery

A Reassessment of Historical Records of Avian Introductions to Australia: No Case for Propagule Pressure, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., Linda E. Moulton, Michael L. Avery, and David Peacock

North American Birds as Potential Amplifying Hosts of Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Nicole M. Nemeth, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Paul T. Oesterle, Dennis Kohler, and Richard Bowen

Detection of prion protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease using protein misfolding cyclic amplification, Tracy A. Nichols, Terry R. Spraker, Tom Gidlewski, Jenny G. Powers, Glenn C. Telling, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Mark D. Zabel

NWRC Chemical Effects Database – What’s Old is New Again, Jeannette R. O'Hare, John D. Eisemann, Walter A. Bowles Jr., Edward W. Schafer Jr., and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Detection probabilities of two introduced frogs in Hawaii: implications for assessing non-native species distributions, Christina A. Olson, Karen H. Beard, David N. Koons, and William C. Pitt

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 8. Eleutherodactylus planirostris, the Greenhouse Frog (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae), Christina A. Olson, Karen H. Beard, and William C. Pitt

Scavenger community response to the removal of a dominant scavenger, Z. H. Olson, J. C. Beasley, T. L. DeVault, and O. E. Rhodes Jr.

Scavenger Community Response to the Removal of a Dominant Scavenger, Z. H. Olson, J. C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, and O. E. Rhodes Jr.

The Role of the National Wildlife Disease Program in Wildlife Disease Surveillance and Emergency Response, Kerri Pedersen, John A. Baroch, Dale L. Nolte, Tom Gidlewski, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Apparent prevalence of swine brucellosis in feral swine in the United States, Kerri Pedersen, Sarah N. Bevins, Brandon S. Schmit, Mark W. Lutman, Michael P. Milleson, Clint T. Turnage, Troy T. Bigelow, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Detection of volatile organic compounds in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis, Nir Peled, Radu Ionescu, Pauline Nol, Orna Barash, Matt McCollum, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Matthew Koslow, Randal S. Stahl, Jack Rhyan, and Hossam Haick

Quantification of heterosubtypic immunity between avian influenza subtypes H3N8 and H4N6 in multiple avian host species, Kim M. Pepin, Kaci K. VanDalen, N. L. Mooers, J. W. Ellis, H. J. Sullivan, J. Jeffrey Root, Colleen T. Webb, A. B. Franklin, and Susan A. Shriner

Invasives: The High Cost of Indifference, Mark Pfost and Kurt C. VerCauteren

A novel bipolar electric fence for excluding white-tailed deer from stored livestock feed, G. E. Phillips, M. J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Joshua J. White, Scott J. Wells, and K. C. VerCauteren