National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Effectiveness of Theobromine and Caffeine Mixtures in Coyote Lure Operative Devices as a Predacide: A Simulated Field Study, Eric M. Gese, Patrick A. Darrow, John A. Shivik, Bruce A. Kimball, John D. Eisemann, and Julie K. Young

Influence of the urban matrix on space use of coyotes in the Chicago metropolitan area, Eric M. Gese, Paul S. Morey, and Stanley D. Gehrt

Do gastrointestinal taste receptors contribute to associative learning and foraging behavior?, G. J. Golden, A. M. Hussey, and B. A. Kimball

Towards optimized population control efficiency in space and time: A modelling framework adapted to a colonial waterbird, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, and Guiming Wang

Widespread avian bornavirus infection in mute swans in the Northeast United States, Jianhua Guo, Lina Covaleda, J Jill Heatley, John A. Baroch, Ian Tizard, and Susan L. Payne

Influenza Exposure In United States Feral Swine Populations, Jeffrey S. Hall, Richard B. Minnis, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott Barras, Randy W. DeYoung, Kristy Pabilonia, Michael L. Avery, Heather Sullivan, Larry Clark, and Robert G. McLean

Report to the City of Chicago on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2011 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, J. W. Hartmann, S. F. Beckerman, R. M. Engeman, T. W. Seamans, and S. Abu-Absi

Deer-Activated Bio-Acoustic Frightening Device Deters White-tailed Deer, Aaron M. Hildreth, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Surveillance for Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007–10, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Solvej Østergaard Breum, Ramona Trebbien, Kurt Jensen Handberg, Ole Roland Therkildsen, Jesper Johannes Madsen, Kasper Thorup, John A. Baroch, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Lars Erik Larsen, and Poul Henrik Jørgensen

Site Use of European Starlings Wintering in Central New Jersey, H. Jeffrey Homan, Anthony A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, George M. Linz, and Wendy Anderson

Band Encounters of Wintering European Starlings Captured in Kansas, Nebraska, and Texas, H. Jeffrey Homan, James R. Thiele, Garrett W. Unrein, Shannon M. Gaukler, Anthony A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, and George M. Linz

Freshwater Clams As Bioconcentrators of Avian Influenza Virus in Water, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Jenny S. Carlson, Kevin T. Bentler, Kacy R. Cobble, Dale L. Nolte, and Alan B. Franklin

Environmental temperatures, physiology and behavior limit the range expansion of invasive Burmese pythons in southeastern USA, Elliott L.R. Jacobson, David G. Barker, Tracy M. Barker, Richard Mauldin, Michael L. Avery, Richard M. Engeman, and Stephen Secor

Quantitative PCR estimates Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) infection levels in semi-slugs (Parmarion martensi), Susan I. Jarvi, Margaret E.M. Farias, Kay Howe, Steven Jacquier, Robert Hollingsworth, and William Pitt

Phytochemical variation within a single plant species influences foraging behavior of deer, Bruce Kimball, John H. Russell, and Peter K. Ott

Migration Patterns of Double-crested Cormorants Wintering in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Bronson K. Strickland, and Andrew Radomski

Winter and Summer Home Ranges and Core Use Areas of Double-crested Cormorants Captured near Aquaculture Facilities in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Bronson K. Strickland, and Andrew A. Radomski

Antibodies to Avian Influenza Viruses in Canada Geese (Branta canadensis): A Potential Surveillance Tool?, Whitney M. Kistler, David E. Stallknecht, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Seth Swafford, Kerri Pedersen, Kyle Van Why, Paul C. Wolf, Jerry A. Hill, Darren L. Brunning, James C. Cumbee, Randall M. Mickley, Carl W. Betsill, Adam R. Randall, Roy D. Berghaus, and Michael J. Yabsley

Assessment of Bird Damage to Sunflower and Corn in North Dakota, Megan E. Klosterman, George M. Linz, Anthony A. Slowik, and William J. Bleier

Integrity and Retention of Ear-Tag Radiotransmitters in Domestic Cattle and Feral Horses, Bryan M. Kluever, Laura Lagos, Stewart W. Breck, Larry D. Howery, Manuel L. Sanmartín, David L. Bergman, and Felipe Bárcena

Effects of Intraguild Predation: Evaluating Resource Competition Between Two Canid Species With Apparent Niche Separation, Adam J. Kozlowski, Eric M. Gese, and Wendy M. Arjo

Development of a Feral Swine Toxic Bait (Hog-Gone®) and Bait Hopper (Hog-Hopper™) in Australia and the USA, Steven Lapidge, Jason Wishart, Linton Staples, Kathy Fagerstone, Tyler Campbell, and John D. Eisemann

Bird Management in Fruit Crops: How We Make Progress, Catherine A. Lindell, Stephani A. Shwiff, and Phillip H. Howard

Preliminary evaluation of 9,10 anthraquinone bird repellent for managing blackbird damage to ripening sunflower, George M. Linz and H. Jeffrey Homan

Sunflower Growers Use Nonlethal Methods to Manage Blackbird Damage, George M. Linz, H. Jeffrey Homan, Scott J. Werner, James C. Carlson, and William J. Bleier

Evaluation of elevated bait trays for attracting blackbirds (Icteridae) in central North Dakota, George M. Linz, Jamison B. Winter, and William J. Bleier

An Estimate of Avian Mortality at Communication Towers in the United States and Canada, Travis Longcore, Catherine Rich, Pierre Mineau, Beau MacDonald, Daniel G. Bert, Lauren M. Sullivan, Erin Mutrie, Sidney A. Gauthreaux Jr., Robert L. Crawford, Michael L. Avery, Albert M. Manville II, Emilie R. Travis, and David Drake

Box Traps for Feral Swine Capture: A Comparison of Gate Styles in Texas, David B. Long and Tyler A. Campbell

Long-term effects of immunocontraception on wild boar fertility, physiology and behaviour, Giovanna Massei, Dave P. Cowan, Julia Coats, Fiona Bellamy, Roger Quy, Stephane Pietravalle, Matthew Brash, and Lowell A. Miller

Long-term effects of immunocontraception on wild boar fertility, physiology and behaviour, Giovanna Massei, Dave P. Cowan, Julia Coats, Fiona Bellamy, Roger Quy, Stéphane Pietravalle, Matthew Brash, and Lowell A. Miller

Coyote (Canis latrans), 100+ Years in the East: A Literature Review, Lauren L. Mastro, Eric M. Gese, Julie K. Young, and John A. Shivik

What Do We Know? A Literature Review of the Eastern Coyote, Lauren L. Mastro, Eric M. Gese, Julie K. Young, and John A. Shivik

Boiga Irregularis (Brown Treesnake), Tom Mathies, William C. Pitt, and Joseph A. Rabon

The use of DiazaCon™ to limit fertility by reducing serum cholesterol in female grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, Brenda A. Mayle, Mark Ferryman, Andrew Peace, Christi A. Yoder, Lowell A. Miller, and David Cowan

HOME RANGES OF THE NILGAI ANTELOPE (BOSELAPHUS TRAGOCAMELUS) IN TEXAS, Jonathan D. Moczygemba, David G. Hewitt, Tyler A. Campbell, J. Alfonso Ortega-S., Justin Feild, and Mickey W. Hellickson

Oblique color vision in an open-habitat bird: spectral sensitivity, photoreceptor distribution and behavioral implications, Bret A. Moore, Patrice Baumhardt, Megan Doppler, Jacquelyn Randolet, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, Ellis R. Loew, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Historical Records Of Passerine Introductions To New Zealand Fail To Support The Propagule Pressure Hypothesis, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., and Michael L. Avery

A Reassessment of Historical Records of Avian Introductions to Australia: No Case for Propagule Pressure, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., Linda E. Moulton, Michael L. Avery, and David Peacock

North American Birds as Potential Amplifying Hosts of Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Nicole M. Nemeth, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Paul T. Oesterle, Dennis Kohler, and Richard Bowen

Detection of prion protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease using protein misfolding cyclic amplification, Tracy A. Nichols, Terry R. Spraker, Tom Gidlewski, Jenny G. Powers, Glenn C. Telling, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Mark D. Zabel

NWRC Chemical Effects Database – What’s Old is New Again, Jeannette R. O'Hare, John D. Eisemann, Walter A. Bowles Jr., Edward W. Schafer Jr., and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Detection probabilities of two introduced frogs in Hawaii: implications for assessing non-native species distributions, Christina A. Olson, Karen H. Beard, David N. Koons, and William C. Pitt

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 8. Eleutherodactylus planirostris, the Greenhouse Frog (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae), Christina A. Olson, Karen H. Beard, and William C. Pitt

Scavenger community response to the removal of a dominant scavenger, Z. H. Olson, J. C. Beasley, T. L. DeVault, and O. E. Rhodes Jr.

Scavenger Community Response to the Removal of a Dominant Scavenger, Z. H. Olson, J. C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, and O. E. Rhodes Jr.

The Role of the National Wildlife Disease Program in Wildlife Disease Surveillance and Emergency Response, Kerri Pedersen, John A. Baroch, Dale L. Nolte, Tom Gidlewski, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Apparent prevalence of swine brucellosis in feral swine in the United States, Kerri Pedersen, Sarah N. Bevins, Brandon S. Schmit, Mark W. Lutman, Michael P. Milleson, Clint T. Turnage, Troy T. Bigelow, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Detection of volatile organic compounds in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis, Nir Peled, Radu Ionescu, Pauline Nol, Orna Barash, Matt McCollum, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Matthew Koslow, Randal S. Stahl, Jack Rhyan, and Hossam Haick

Quantification of heterosubtypic immunity between avian influenza subtypes H3N8 and H4N6 in multiple avian host species, Kim M. Pepin, Kaci K. VanDalen, N. L. Mooers, J. W. Ellis, H. J. Sullivan, J. Jeffrey Root, Colleen T. Webb, A. B. Franklin, and Susan A. Shriner

Invasives: The High Cost of Indifference, Mark Pfost and Kurt C. VerCauteren

A novel bipolar electric fence for excluding white-tailed deer from stored livestock feed, G. E. Phillips, M. J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Joshua J. White, Scott J. Wells, and K. C. VerCauteren

Molecular Surveillance of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds across the United States: Inferences from the Hemagglutinin Gene, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Susan A. Shriner, Kaci K. VanDalen, Alan B. Franklin, Theodore D. Anderson, and Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis

Using Bird Strike Information to Direct Effective Management Actions within Airport Environments, Todd J. Pitlik and Brian E. Washburn

Management of Invasive Coqui Frog Populations in Hawaii, William C. Pitt, Karen H. Beard, and Rogelio E. Doratt

Freeing Islands from Rodents, William C. Pitt, Daniel Vice, Dana Lujen, Diane Vice, and Gary W. Witmer

Modification of net configurations of the Coda Netlauncher® to enhance bird capture, Amanda M. Prisock, Brian S. Dorr, and James C. Cumbee

Didactic Lessons Derived from the Shoshone River Skunk Rabies Epizootic, Craig A. Ramey, Kenneth H. Mills, Justin W. Fischer, and Robert G. Mclean

Assessment of toxicity and potential risk of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone using Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Rebecca S. Lazarus, Karen M. Eisenreich, Carol U. Meteyer, Steven F. Volker, Christopher M. Campton, John D. Eisemann, and John J. Johnston

Comparative Risk Assessment of the First-Generation Anticoagulant Rodenticide Diphacinone to Raptors, Barnett A. Rattner, Rebecca S. Lazarus, Karen M. Eisenreich, Katherine E. Horak, Steven F. Volker, Christopher M. Campton, John D. Eisemann, Carol U. Meteyer, and John J. Johnston

Home Ranges Of Female Rio Grande Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo Intermedia) In Southern Texas, Eric Reyes Ramirez, Megan C. Clayton, Cody W. Lawson, Stephen M. Burns, Rafael Guarneros-Altimirano, Stephen J. Demaso, William P. Kuvlesky Jr., David G. Hewitt, J. Alfonso Ortega-Santos, and Tyler A. Campbell

Genetic Measures Confirm Familial Relationships and Strengthen Study Design, Stacie J. Robinson, Ryan D. Walrath, Timonthy R. VanDeelen, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Potential Influences of Climate and Nest Structure on Spotted Owl Reproductive Success: A Biophysical Approach, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Alan B. Franklin, George S. Bakken, and R. J. Gutierrez

National surveillance for human and pet contact with oral rabies vaccine baits, 2001–2009, Amira A. Roess, Nancy Rea, Edith Lederman, Virginia Dato, Richard Chipman, Dennis Slate, Mary G. Reynolds, Inger K. Damon, and Charles E. Rupprecht

West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis, J. Jeffrey Root

Genetic evaluation of an attempted Rattus rattus eradication on Congo Cay, U.S. Virgin Islands, identifies importance of eradication units, Julie A. Savidge, Matthew W. Hopken, Gary W. Witmer, Susan M. Jojola, Judy J. Pierce, Patrick W. Burke, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Territory fidelity, space use, and survival rates of wild coyotes following surgical sterilization, Renee G. Seidler and Eric M. Gese

Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild House Mice, Susan A. Shriner, Kaci K. VanDalen, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Heather J. Sullivan, J. Jeffrey Root, Angela M. Pelzel, and Alan B. Franklin

Bioeconomic Modelling of Raccoon Rabies Spread Management Impacts in Quebec, Canada, S. A.. Shwiff, C. Aenishaenslin, A. Ludwig, P. Berthiaume, M. Bigras-Poulin, K. Kirkpatrick, L. Lambert, and D. Bélanger

Assignment of measurable costs and benefits to wildlife conservation projects, S. A. Shwiff, A. M. Anderson, R. Cullen, P. C. L. White, and S. S. Shwiff

Producer survey of bird-livestock interactions in commercial dairies, Stephanie A. Shwiff, James C. Carlson, J. H. Glass, J. Suckow, Martin S. Lowney, K. M. Moxcey, Bruce Larson, and George M. Linz

SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF ONRAB® IN RACCOONS AND SKUNKS IN WEST VIRGINIA – 2011 FIELD TRIAL REPORT, D. D. Slate, R. Chipman, K. Nelson, C. Croson, S. Mills, C. Rupprecht, and K. C. VerCauteren

Synergistic stressors and the dilemma of conservation in a multivariate world: a case study in Allegheny woodrats, T. J. Smyser, S. A. Johnson, L. Kristen Page, and Olin Eugene Rhodes Jr.

Developing an Effective Management Plan for Starlings Roosting in Downtown Omaha, Nebraska, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz, H. Jeffrey Homan, and Garrett W. Unrein

Swift Foxes and Ideal Free Distribution: Relative Influence of Vegetation and Rodent Prey Base on Swift Fox Survival, Density, and Home Range Size, Craig M. Thompson and Eric M. Gese

Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America: Effects of age, sex, polymorphism at PRNP codon 96, and disease progression, Bruce V. Thomsen, David A. Schneider, Katherine I. O’Rourke, Thomas Gidlewski, James McLane, Robert W. Allen, Alex A. McIsaac, Gordon B. Mitchell, Delwyn P. Keane, Terry R. Spraker, and Aru Balachandran

Opening Remarks – Twenty-Fifth Vertebrate Pest Conference, Robert M. Timm, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, and A. Charles Crabb

U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services: Providing Federal Leadership in Managing Conflicts with Wildlife, Mark E. Tobin

Wildlife Services 2011 Research Needs Assessment, Mark E. Tobin, Stephanie A. Shwiff, John E. McConnell, and Gary A. Littauer

Rabies in North America: A Model of the One Health Approach, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Christine Ellis, Richard Chipman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Dennis Slate

Cow dogs: Use of livestock protection dogs for reducing predation and transmission of pathogens from wildlife to cattle, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, Thomas M. Gehring, and Jean-Marc Landry

Prion Remains Infectious after Passage through Digestive System of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), Kurt C. Vercauteren, John L. Pilon, Paul B. Nash, Gregory E. Phillips, and Justin W. Fischer

Efficacy of Proximity Loggers for Detection of Contacts Between Maternal Pairs of White-Tailed Deer, Ryan Walrath, Timonthy R. VanDeelen, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

On-FarmMitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis fromWhite-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations, W. David Walter, Charles W. Anderson, Rick Smith, Mike Vanderklok, James J. Averill, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Evaluation of Remote Delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Technology to Mark Large Mammals, W. David Walter, Charles W. Anderson, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Using three-dimensional flight patterns at airfields to identify hotspots for avian-aircraft collisions, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, John S. Humphrey, Trey S. Daughtery, Michael P. Milleson, Eric A. Tillman, and Michael L. Avery

Using three-dimensional flight patterns at airfields to identify hotspots for avianeaircraft collisions, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, John S. Humphrey, Trey S. Daughtery, Michael P. Milleson, Eric A. Tillman, and Michael L. Avery

Are Turf-type Tall Fescue Cultivars Useful for Reducing Wildlife Hazards in Airport Environments?, Brian E. Washburn

Avian use of solid waste transfer stations, Brian E. Washburn

Corrigendum to “Avian use of solid waste transfer stations” [Landscape Urban Plan. 104 (2012) 388–394], Brian E. Washburn

Historical And Current Status Of Laughing Gulls Breeding In New York State, Brian E. Washburn, Martin S. Lowney, and Allen L. Gosser

Foraging Preferences of Canada Geese Among Turfgrasses: Implications for Reducing Human–Goose Conflicts, Brian E. Washburn and Thomas W. Seamans

The role of a generalized ultraviolet cue for blackbird food selection, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, and George M. Linz

Introduction: Double-crested Cormorants of the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence River Basin: Recent Studies, Movements and Responses to Management Actions, D.V. Chip Weseloh, Francesca J. Cuthbert, and D. Tommy King

Beyond use versus availability: behaviour-explicit resource selection, Ryan R. Wilson, Lynne Gilbert-Norton, and Eric M. Gese

Eradication of Invasive Rodents on Islands of the United States, Gary W. Witmer

Effects of Turf Rolling and Soil Aeration on Rodent Populations, Gary W. Witmer and David Borrowman

Vertebrate Species Introductions in the United States and its Territories, Gary W. Witmer and Pam Fuller

Deer Mice (Peromyscus spp.) Biology, Damage and Management: A Review, Gary W. Witmer and Rachael S. Moulton

Rodent Burrow Systems in North America: Problems Posed and Potential Solutions, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael S. Moulton, and Jenna L. Swartz

Voles Damage Seedlings, But Do Deer Mice and House Mice?, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael S. Moulton, and Jenna L. Swartz